Browsing by Subject "C15"

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  • Toivanen, Mervi (2013)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 19/2013
    This paper analyses the importance of individual bank-specific factors on financial stability. First, we use a novel method to model the spreading of the contagion in the interbank network by implementing an epidemiologic model. Actual data on European banks is exploited with simulated scale-free networks. The average contagion affected 70% and 40% of European banks' total assets in 2007 and in 2010, respectively. Country-level results suggest that French, British, German and Spanish banks are the most contagious ones, whereas banks from Ireland, Greece and Portugal induce only limited negative effects. Secondly, cross-sectional panel estimations are performed to disentangle the leading indicators influencing the level of contagion. Bank clustering, large in-coming interbank loans and bank reputation are more prominent explanatory variables than the size or leverage. Finally, central banks' interventions reduce contagion only slightly. Keywords: contagion, banks, Europe, interbank, epidemiology, panel regression JEL codes: G01, G21, C15
  • Taipalus, Katja (2012)
    Suomen Pankki. E 47
    To promote the financial stability, there is a need for an early warning system to signal the formation of asset price misalignments. This research provides two novel methods to accomplish this task. Results in this research shows that the conventional unit root tests in modified forms can be used to construct early warning indicators for bubbles in financial markets. More precisely, the conventional augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test is shown to provide a basis for two novel bubble indicators. These new indicators are tested via MC simulations to analyze their ability to signal emerging unit roots in time series and to compare their power with standard stability and unit root tests. Simulation results concerning these two new stability tests are promising: they seem to be more robust and to have more power in the presence of changing persistence than the standard stability and unit root tests. When these new tests are applied to real US stock market data starting from 1871, they are able to signal most of the consensus bubbles, defined as stock market booms for example by the IMF, and they also flash warning signals far ahead of a crash. Also encouraging are the results with these methods in practical applications using equity prices in the UK, Finland and China as the methods seem to be able to signal most of the consensus bubbles from the data. Finally, these early warning indicators are applied to data for several housing markets. In most of the cases the indicators seem to work relatively well, indicating bubbles before the periods which, according to the consensus literature, are seen as periods of sizeable upward or downward movements. The scope of application of these early warning indicators could be wide. They could be used eg to help determine the right timing for the start of a monetary tightening cycle or for an increase in countercyclical capital buffers. Key words: asset prices, financial crises, bubbles, indicator, unit-root JEL classification: C15, G01, G12
  • Égert, Balázs; Halpern, László (2005)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 4/2005
    Published in Journal of Banking & Finance 30 (2006), pp. 1359-1374
    This paper analyses the ever-growing literature on equilibrium exchange rates in the new EU member states of Central and Eastern Europe in a quantitative manner using meta-regression analysis.The results indicate that the real misalignments reported in the literature are systematically influenced, inter alia, by the underlying theoretical concepts (Balassa-Samuelson effect, Behavioural Equilibrium Exchange Rate, Fundamental Equilibrium Exchange Rate) and by the econometric estimation methods.The important implication of these findings is that a systematic analysis is needed in terms of both alternative economic and econometric specifications to assess equilibrium exchange rates. JEL: C15, E31, F31, O11, P17. Keywords: equilibrium exchange rate, Balassa-Samuelson effect, meta-analysis
  • Virolainen, Kimmo (2003)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 18/2004
    In the discussion paper, we employ data on industry-specific corporate sector bankruptcies over the time period from 1986 to 2003 and estimate a macroeconomic credit risk model for the Finnish corporate sector.The sample period includes a severe recession with significantly higher-than-average default rates in the early 1990s.The results suggest a significant relationship between corporate sector default rates and key macroeconomic factors including GDP, interest rates and corporate indebtedness.The estimated model is employed to analyse corporate credit risks conditional on current macroeconomic conditions.Furthermore, the paper presents some examples of applying the model to macro stress testing, ie analysing the effects of various adverse macroeconomic events on the banks credit risks stemming from the corporate sector.The results of the stress tests suggest that Finnish corporate sector credit risks are fairly limited in the current macroeconomic environment. Key words: banking, credit risk, stress tests JEL classification numbers: C15, G21, G28, G33
  • Jokivuolle, Esa; Virolainen, Kimmo; Vähämaa, Oskari (2008)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 17/2008
    Basel II framework requires banks to conduct stress tests on their potential future minimum capital requirements and consider `at least the effect of mild recession scenarios'. We propose a stress testing framework for minimum capital requirements in which banks' corporate credit risks are modeled with macroeconomic variables. We can thus define scenarios such as a mild recession and consider the resulting credit risk developments and consequent changes in minimum capital requirements. We also emphasize the importance of stress testing future minimum capital requirements jointly with credit losses. Our illustrative results based on Finnish data underline the importance of such joint modeling. We also find that stress tests based on scenarios envisaged by regulators are not likely to imply binding capital constraints on banks. Keywords: Basel II, capital requirements, credit risk, loan losses, stress tests JEL classification numbers: C15, G21, G28, G33
  • Laine, Tatu (ed.) (2015)
    Scientific monographs. E 50
    This simulator seminar book includes twelve chapters dealing with various aspects of quantitative analysis of financial market infrastructures. The topics include, among others, systemic risks, participant behavior, and new monitoring methods of various payment systems. The methodologies vary from payment system simulations to other types of quantitative analysis based e.g. on artificial neural networks as well as GARCH models. These studies have been presented in the Bank of Finland’s simulator seminars during 2012–2014.
  • Chen, Xi; Funke, Michael (2012)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 27/2012
    Published in The National Institute Economic Review, February 2013, 223 (1), pp. 39-48
    The recent increase in Chinese house prices has led to concerns that China is vulnerable to asset price shocks. In this paper, we apply recently developed recursive unit root tests to spot the beginning and the end of potential speculative bubbles in Chinese house price cycles. Overall, we find that except for 2009-2010 actual house prices are not significantly disconnected from fundamentals. Thus, the evidence for speculative house price bubbles in China is in general weak. Keywords: house prices, China, speculative bubbles, recursive unit root tests JEL-Classification: C15, G01, G12, R31
  • Taipalus, Katja (2012)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 7/2012
    This paper provides an early warning indicator for bubbles in financial markets. The indicator is based on traditional unit root tests, more precisely on the augmented Dickey-Fuller test and may be used in a repeated manner with rolling samples. The performance of the indicator is tested extensively via Monte Carlo simulations and comparisons of the results with the most powerful standard (stability) tests. The new indicator seems to be more robust and to have more power than the standard tests. In empirical application to US stock market data for 1871-2010, the new indicator signals most of the consensus bubbles and gives warning signals well ahead of the crash, in most cases as early as 12 months ahead. The indicator also signals most of the 'negative bubbles' before their turning points. The author would like to thank Matti Viren, Esa Jokivuolle, Jouko Vilmunen, Pentti Saikkonen, Heikki Kauppi and Ari Hyytinen for their comments at various stages of this work. I would also like to thank Nina Björklund and Tarja Yrjölä for research assistance. Keywords: asset prices, financial crises, bubble, indicator, unit-root JEL classification numbers: G12, C15, G01
  • Feldkircher, Martin (2012)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 26/2012
    Published in Journal of International Money and Finance, Volume 43, May 2014, Pages 19-49.
    In this paper, we identify initial macroeconomic and financial market conditions that help explain the distinct response of the real economy of a particular country to the recent global financial crisis. Using four measures of crisis severity, we examine a data set with over 90 potential explanatory factors employing techniques that are robust to model uncertainty. Four findings are of particular note. First, we find empirical evidence for the pivotal role of pre-crisis credit growth in shaping the real economy's response to the crisis. Specifically, a 1% increase in pre-crisis lending translates into a 0.2% increase in the cumulative loss in real output. Moreover, the combination of pronounced growth in lending ahead of the crisis and the country's exposure to external funding from advanced economies is shown to intensify the real downturn. Economies with booming real activity before the crisis are found to be less resilient to the global shock. Buoyant growth in real GDP in parallel with strong growth of credit particularly exacerbated the effects of the recent crisis on the real economy. Finally, we provide empirical evidence on the importance of holding international reserves in explaining the response of the real economy to the crisis. The effect of international reserves accumulation as a shelter to the global shock rises in credit provided by the domestic banking sector. The results are shown to be robust to several estimation techniques, including those allowing for cross-country spillovers. Keywords: Financial crisis, credit boom, international shock transmission, Bayesian model averaging, cross-country analysis, non-linear effects. JEL Classifications: C11, C15, E01, O47.