Browsing by Subject "C21"

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  • Granziera, Eleonora; Bauer, Gregory H. (2017)
    International Journal of Central Banking 3 ; September
    Can monetary policy be used to promote financial stability? We answer this question by estimating the impact of a monetary policy shock on private-sector leverage and the likelihood of a financial crisis. Impulse responses obtained from a panel VAR model of eighteen advanced countries suggest that the debt-to-GDP ratio rises in the short run following an unexpected tightening in monetary policy. As a consequence, the likelihood of a financial crisis increases, as estimated from a panel logit regression. However, in the long run, output recovers and higher borrowing costs discourage new lending, leading to a deleveraging of the private sector. A lower debt-to-GDP ratio in turn reduces the likelihood of a financial crisis. These results suggest that monetary policy can achieve a less risky financial system in the long run but could fuel financial instability in the short run. We also find that the ultimate effects of a monetary policy tightening on the probability of a financial crisis depend on the leverage of the private sector: the higher the initial value of the debt-to-GDP ratio, the more beneficial the monetary policy intervention in the long run, but the more destabilizing in the short run.
  • Siklos, Pierre L. (2012)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 17/2012
    Even before the events of the past few years, economists and policy makers were musing about the apparent contradiction between globalization, as it is generally understood, and the seemingly different paths in overall economic activity taken by the emerging and more mature economies of the world. The present paper reconsiders whether it is, in fact, useful to think of correlations in business cycle movements as reflecting some form of coupling or decoupling and, instead, suggests that, even if business cycles may well have become more synchronous for a time, it is more useful to think of international business cycle co-movements as reflecting their mutual dependence that can be subjected to short-run interruptions or affected by a variety of other economic factors. I report evidence based on factor-augmented quantile regressions for a panel of annual data since 1980 from 9 regions of the world. A panel is used to estimate the common factors which are then applied to the quantile regression model to determine the sources of business cycle co-movements across countries and regions of the world. JEL Classification numbers: E32, C21, C22, C23 Keywords: business cycles, quantile regression, panel estimation, factor model, coupling, decoupling
  • Tukiainen, Janne; Takalo, Tuomas; Hulkkonen, Topi (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 15/2018
    Published in European Journal of Political Economy, Volume 58, June 2019: 50-63
    We exploit a regression discontinuity design to provide causal evidence of the relative age effect (RAE) on a long-run adult age outcome: Political selection. We find strong evidence of the RAE in politics in Finland. However, the effect is heterogeneous: We find that male candidates born early in the calendar year have a significantly higher probability of getting elected to the parliament but no similar RAE applies to female candidates nor to municipal elections. Moreover, this effect only takes place in the most competitive parliamentary districts and is present only for some parties. We also find that in all the groups where the RAE does not exist, early-born candidates are under-represented suggesting attrition of talent in the candidate placement. Overall, our results show that seemingly artificial cutoffs imposed by the government have persistent consequences even on the selection to the highest positions of power within a society.
  • Tukiainen, Janne; Takalo, Tuomas; Hulkkonen, Topi (2019)
    European Journal of Political Economy June
    Published in Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 15/2018 http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:bof-201808081924
    We exploit a regression discontinuity design to provide causal evidence of the relative age effect (RAE) on a long-run adult age outcome: Political selection. We find strong evidence of the RAE in politics in Finland. However, the effect is heterogeneous: We find that male candidates born early in the calendar year have a significantly higher probability of getting elected to the parliament but no similar RAE applies to female candidates nor to municipal elections. Moreover, this effect only takes place in the most competitive parliamentary districts and is present only for some parties. We also find that in all the groups where the RAE does not exist, early-born candidates are under-represented suggesting attrition of talent in the candidate placement. Overall, our results show that seemingly artificial cutoffs imposed by the government have persistent consequences even on the selection to the highest positions of power within a society.
  • Ledyaeva, Svetlana (2007)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 15/2007
    Published in World Economy, Vol. 32, Issue 4, April 2009, pp: 643-666 as "Spatial Econometric Analysis of Foreign Direct Investment Determinants in Russian Regions"
    Using a spatial autoregressive model of cross-sectional and panel data, we study the determinants and dominant strategies of FDI inflows into Russia before and after the 1998 financial crisis. The important determinants of FDI inflows into Russian regions since transition began appear to be market size, the presence of large cities and sea ports, oil and gas availability, and political and legislative risks. Since 1998, it appears the importance of big cities, the Sakhalin region, oil and gas resources and legislation risk has increased, while the importance of political risk and port availability has decreased. Our results also reveal a shift from horizontal FDI strategy to a regional trade-platform FDI strategy. While theory anticipates combined vertical and horizontal motives for regional trade-platform strategies, the lack of evidence of a vertical motive in the Russian case suggests import substitution presently plays a significant role in regional trade-platform FDI. Using a multiple spatial lags approach, we show that neighbouring regions with ports have emerged post-crisis as competitors for FDI and identify agglomeration effects in FDI between adjacent regions with and without ports during the period 1999-2002. Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, Russian regions, FDI strategy, spatial autoregressive model JEL classification: F21, E22, C21