Browsing by Subject "E17"

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  • Drehmann, Mathias; Juselius, Mikael; Korinek, Anton (2017)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 12/2017
    When taking on new debt, borrowers commit to a pre-specified path of future debt service. This implies a predictable lag between credit booms and peaks in debt service which, in a panel of household debt in 17 countries, is four years on average. The lag is driven by two key features of the data: (i) new borrowing is strongly auto-correlated and (ii) debt contracts are long term. The delayed increase in debt service following an impulse to new borrowing largely explains why credit booms are associated with lower future output growth and higher probability of crisis. This provides a systematic transmission channel whereby credit expansions can have adverse long-lasting real effects.
  • Kilponen, Juha; Pisani, Massimiliano; Schmidt, Sebastian; Corbo, Vesna; Hledik, Tibor; Hollmayr, Josef; Hurtado, Samuel; Júlio, Paulo; Kulikov, Dmitry; Lemoine, Matthieu; Lozej, Matija; Lundvall, Henrik; Maria, José R.; Micallef, Brian; Papageorgiou, Dimitris; Rysanek, Jakub; Sideris, Dimitrios; Thomas, Carlos; de Walque, Gregory (2019)
    International Journal of Central Banking September 2019
    Also available as European Central Bank Working Paper No 1760 2015.
    This paper employs fifteen dynamic macroeconomic models maintained within the European System of Central Banks to assess the macroeconomic effects of a temporary fiscal tightening when the zero lower bound (ZLB) on monetary policy holds for two years. The main results are as follows. First, the ZLB does not greatly affect short-run multipliers in the case of a temporary fiscal tightening implemented in isolation by a generic euro-area (EA) country. Second, the ZLB unfolds quite sizable effects on the size of multipliers if the same fiscal tightening measure is simultaneously implemented in the whole EA. Third, public consumption multipliers are typically larger in absolute value than short-run tax (on labor income, capital income, and consumption) multipliers. Fourth, recessionary effects of the initial fiscal tightening are lower if distortionary taxes are reduced in the medium and long run.
  • Männistö, Hanna-Leena (2005)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 21/2005
    To develop forecasting procedures with a forward-looking dynamic general equilibrium model, we built a small New-Keynesian model and calibrated it to euro area data.It was essential in this context that we allowed for long-run growth in GDP.We brought additional asset price equations based on the expectations hypothesis and the Gordon growth model, into the standard open economy model, in order to extract information on private sector long-run expectations on fundamentals, and to combine that information into the macro economic forecast.We propose a method of transforming the model in forecasting use in such a way, as to match, in an economically meaningful way, the short-term forecast levels, especially of the model's jump-variables, to the parameters affecting the long-run trends of the key macroeconomic variables.More specifically, in the model we have used for illustrative purposes, we pinned down the long-run inflation expectations and domestic and foreign potential growth-rates using the model's steady state solution in combination with, by assumption, forward looking information in up-to-date financial market data.Consequently, our proposed solution preserves consistency with market expectations and results, as a favourable by-product, in forecast paths with no initial, first forecast period jumps.Furthermore, no ad hoc re-calibration is called for in the proposed forecasting procedures, which clearly is an advantage from point of view of transparency in communication.Key words: forecasting, New Keynesian model, DSGE model, rational expectations, open economy JEL classification numbers: E17, E30, E31, F41
  • Drehmann, Mathias; Juselius, Mikael; Korinek, Anton (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 10/2018
    Traditional economic models have had difficulty explaining the non-monotonic real effects of credit booms and, in particular, why they have predictable negative after-effects for up to a decade. We provide a systematic transmission mechanism by focusing on the flows of resources between borrowers and lenders, i.e. new borrowing and debt service. We construct the first cross-country dataset of these flows for a panel of house-hold debt in 16 countries. We show that new borrowing increases economic activity but generates a pre-specified path of debt service that reduces future economic activity. The protracted response in debt service derives from two key analytic properties of credit booms: (i) new borrowing is auto-correlated and (ii) debt contracts are long term. We confirm these properties in the data and show that debt service peaks on average four years after credit booms and is associated with significantly lower output and higher crisis risk. Our results explain the transmission mechanism through which credit booms and busts generate non-monotonic and long-lasting aggregate demand effects and are, hence, crucial for macroeconomic stabilization policy.
  • Qin, Duo; He, Xinhua (2012)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 25/2012
    Ways of extracting financial condition indices (FCI) are explored and alternative FCIs external to the Chinese economy are constructed to model their predictive content. The exploration aims at highlighting the rich and varied dynamic features of financial variables underlying FCIs and the importance of synchronising dynamic information between FCIs and the real-sector variables to be forecasted. The modelling experiment aims at improving the forecasting model upon which the FCIs are assessed. Four variables are chosen as the likely macro channel of the FCIs affecting the Chinese economy. It is found that the FCI-led models enjoy forecasting advantages over a benchmark model in three out of the four variables, although the benchmark model is not dominated by the FCI-led models when judged by in-sample encompassing tests. The evidence indicates the increasing exposure of the Chinese economy to the global financial conditions. Key words: financial index, dynamic factor, VAR, error correction, encompassing JEL Classification: E17, F37, G17, C43
  • Porshakov, Alexey; Deryugina, Elena; Ponomarenko, Alexey; Sinyakov, Andrey (2015)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 19/2015
    Published in Zhournal Novoi Ekonomicheskoi Associacii, Volume 2, Issue 30, 2016: 60-76
    Real-time assessment of quarterly GDP growth rates is crucial for evaluation of economy’s current perspectives given the fact that respective data is normally subject to substantial publication delays by national statistical agencies. Large information sets of real-time indicators which could be used to approximate GDP growth rates in the quarter of interest are in practice characterized by unbalanced data, mixed frequencies, systematic data revisions, as well as a more general curse of dimensionality problem. The latter issues could, however, be practically resolved by means of dynamic factor modeling that has recently been recognized as a helpful tool to evaluate current economic conditions by means of higher frequency indicators. Our major results show that the performance of dynamic factor models in predicting Russian GDP dynamics appears to be superior as compared to other common alternative specifications. At the same time, we empirically show that the arrival of new data seems to consistently improve DFM’s predictive accuracy throughout sequential nowcast vintages. We also introduce the analysis of nowcast evolution resulting from the gradual expansion of the dataset of explanatory variables, as well as the framework for estimating contributions of different blocks of predictors into now-casts of Russian GDP.