Browsing by Subject "E20"

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  • Hlédik, Tibor (2003)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 35/2003
    The paper presents a structural model framework for a small open economy.The model, based on optimising households and firms, has been calibrated on Czech macroeconomic data in order to develop an analytic framework suitable for analysing key policy questions related to the Czech Republic s anticipated EMU accession.In order to be able to use the model for assessing both pre- and post-accession policy issues, two versions of the model fixed and flexible exchange rate versions were developed.The suitability of the two alternative models for policy analysis was subsequently tested on a series of impulse response exercises.The dynamic responses of the two models to selected shocks and policy experiments are plausible.Hence these results suggest that the presented analytic framework can serve as a good starting point for analysing complex policy issues facing the Czech Republic. Key words: monetary policy, monetary union, EMU accession JEL classification numbers: E52, E20, E31, F41
  • Isoré, Marlène; Szczerbowicz, Urszula (2017)
    Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 1 June
    CEPII Working Paper N°2015-16, September 2015
    In RBC models, disaster risk shocks reproduce countercyclical risk premia but generate an increase in consumption along the recession and asset price fall, through their effects on agents’ preferences (Gourio, 2012). This paper offers a solution to this puzzle by developing a New Keynesian model with such a small but time-varying probability of “disaster”. We show that price stickiness, combined with an EIS smaller than unity, restores procyclical consumption and wages, while preserving countercyclical risk premia, in response to disaster risk shocks. The mechanism then provides a rationale for discount factor first- and second-moment (“uncertainty”) shocks.
  • Paloviita, Maritta (2007)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 14/2007
    Using European panel data and GMM system estimation, we explore the empirical performance of the standard three-equation New Keynesian macro model under different informational assumptions. As a benchmark, we consider the performance of the model under rational expectations and revised (final) data. Alternatively, instead of imposing rational expectations hypothesis we use realtime information, ie Consensus Economics survey data, to generate empirical proxies for expectations in the model and the current output gap in the Taylor rule. We demonstrate that, contrary to the assumption of rational expectations, the errors in measured expectations and real-time current output gaps are positively autocorrelated. We produce evidence that the use of real-time variables (including measured expectations) improves the empirical performance of the New Keynesian model. Relaxation of the rational expectations hypothesis makes a noticeable difference for the parameters of the New Keynesian model, especially in the Taylor rule. Keywords: DSGE model, survey expectations, GMM system estimation, expectations, estimation JEL classification numbers: C52, E52, E20
  • Ambrocio, Gene (2020)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 5/2020
    I construct a novel measure of household uncertainty based on survey data for European countries. I show that household uncertainty shocks are not universally like negative demand shocks. Notably, household uncertainty shocks are largely inflationary in Europe. These results lend support to a pricing bias mechanism as an important transmission channel. A comparison of results across countries suggest that demographics and factors related to average markups along with monetary policy play a role in the transmission of household uncertainty to inflation. I develop an Overlapping Generations New Keynesian model with Deep Habits to rationalize these results.
  • Fernald, John; Hsu, Eric; Spiegel, Mark M. (2015)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 29/2015
    How reliable are China’s GDP and other data? We address this question by using trading partner exports to China as an independent measure of its economic activity from 2000–2014. We find that the information content of Chinese GDP improves markedly after 2008.We also consider a number of plausible, non-GDP indicators of economic activity that have been identified as alternative Chinese output measures. We find that activity factors based on the first principal component of sets of indicators are substantially more informative than GDP alone. The index that best matches activity in-sample uses four indicators: electricity, rail freight, an index of raw materials supply, and retail sales. Adding GDP to this group only modestly improves in-sample performance. Moreover, out of sample, a single activity factor without GDP proves the most reliable measure of economic activity.
  • Juselius, Mikael; Drehmann, Mathias (2016)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 3/2016
    Also available in Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 82 ; 2
    In addition to leverage, the debt service burden of households and firms is an important link between financial and real developments at the aggregate level. Using US data from 1985 to 2013, we find that the debt service burden has sizeable negative effects on expenditure. Its interplay with leverage also explains several data puzzles, such as the lack of above-trend output growth during credit booms and the depth and length of ensuing recessions, without appealing to large shocks or non-linearities. Using data up to 2005, our model predicts paths for credit and expenditure that closely match actual developments before and during the Great Recession.
  • Schmöller, Michaela (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 8/2019
    I propose a two-sector endogenous growth model with heterogeneous sectoral productivity and sector-specific, nonlinear hiring costs to analyse the link between sectoral resource allocation, low productivity growth and stagnant real wages. My results suggest that an upward shift in the labor supply, triggered for instance by a labor market reform, as among others implemented in Germany in 2003-2005, is beneficial in the long-run as it raises growth of technology, labor productivity and real wages. I show, however, that in the immediate phase following the labor supply shock, labor productivity and real wages stagnate as employment gains are initially disproportionally allocated to low-productivity sectors, limiting the capacity for technology growth and depressing real wages and productivity. I demonstrate that due to the learning-by-doing growth externality in the high-productivity sector the competitive equilibrium is ineffcient as firms fail to internalize the effect of their labor allocation on aggregate growth. Subsidies to high-productivity sector production can alleviate welfare losses along the transition path.
  • Kangasrääsiö, Suvi (2019)
    BoF Economics Review 5/2019
    Talouden kehitystä kuvaavat tilastoaineistot valmistuvat viiveellä, ja tilastojen lukuja tarkennetaan eli revisioidaan lähdeaineistojen täydentyessä ja tarkentuessa. Tässä artikkelissa tarkastellaan kansantalouden neljännesvuositilinpidon tavaroiden ja palveluiden tilin (entinen huoltotase) revisioita. Artikkelissa kuvaillaan Suomen bruttokansantuotteen kausitasoitetun volyymin ja sen kysyntäerien revisioita ja testataan mahdollisuuksia ennakoida revisioita. BKT:n kasvun estimaatit ovat tulosten mukaan hieman harhaisia tarkastelujakson aikana, ja revisiot ovat suurimmillaan suhdanteen käännepisteissä sekä kahdella ensimmäisellä vuosineljänneksellä. BKT:n neljännesvuosikasvun revisiot eivät ole ennakoitavissa pelkkää BKT-aineistoa käyttämällä, mutta tavaroiden ja palveluiden tilin tilastollisella erolla on jonkin verran ennustekykyä. Kysyntäeristä mittaluokaltaan suurimmat revisiot ovat voimakkaasti vaihtelevilla tuonnilla ja viennillä, mutta nettoviennin revisiot jäävät pieniksi tuonnin ja viennin tarkentuessatyypillisesti samaan suuntaan. Yksityisen kulutuksen revisiot ovat maltillisia, mutta erän suuresta koosta johtuen revisiot ovat merkittäviä kokonaiskysynnän kannalta.