Browsing by Subject "G11"

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  • Huhtala, Heli (2008)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 5/2008
    It is well known that under certain assumptions the strategy of an investor maximizing his expected utility coincides with the mean-variance optimal strategy. In this paper we show that the two strategies are not equal in general and find the connection between a utility maximizing and a mean-variance optimal strategy in a continuous semimartingale model. That is done by showing that the utility maximizing strategy of a CARA investor can be expressed in terms of expectation and the expected quadratic variation of the underlying price process. It coincides with the mean-variance optimal strategy if the underlying price process is a local martingale. Keywords: mean-variance portfolios, utility maximization, dynamic portfolio selection, quadratic variation JEL classification numbers: G11, C61
  • Lehtoranta, Antti (2014)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 30/2014
    Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), I document that childhood experience of father's job loss decreases the propensity to own stocks as an adult. If this experience takes place at the age of 5–10 years, the probability of owning stocks decreases by 2.9 percentage points in a sample with mean stock market participation rate of 17%. This finding is robust to alternative definitions of age ranges and controlling for random unobserved effects. I also find an effect of similar magnitude in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data. Keywords: stock market participation, personal experience, job loss
  • Nyberg, Peter; Vaihekoski, Mika (2014)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 10/2014
    This paper continues the data collection procedure and analysis set forth in Nyberg and Vaihekoski (2009). A number of new time series that are commonly used in finance literature are collected, created, and analyzed for the first time. These series include, among others, monthly dividend yields and market capitalization values. The series are also compared with GDP to evaluate the overall role of the stock market in the Finnish economy. The value-weighted average dividend yield from 1912 to 1988 is 4.98%. The average stock market capitalization to GDP ratio is found to be 15.14%. JEL-classification: G10, G11, N24 Keywords: Stock market, financial history, dividend yield, capitalization values, trading turnover, Finland, Helsinki Stock Exchange, Nasdaq OMX
  • Saka, Orkun (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 3/2019
    European banks have been criticized for holding excessive domestic government debt during economic downturns, which may have intensified the diabolic loop between sovereign and bank credit risks. By using a novel bank-level dataset covering the entire timeline of the Eurozone crisis, I first re-confirm that the crisis led to the reallocation of sovereign debt from foreign to domestic banks. This reallocation was only visible for banks as opposed to other domestic private agents and it cannot be explained by the banks' risk-shifting tendency. In contrast to the recent literature focusing only on sovereign debt, I show that banks' private sector exposures were (at least) equally affected by a rise in home bias. Finally, consistent with these patterns, I propose a new debt reallocation channel based on informational frictions and show that informationally closer foreign banks increase their relative exposures when sovereign risk rises. The effect of informational closeness is economically meaningful and robust to the use of different information measures and controls for alternative channels of sovereign debt reallocation.
  • Hong, Claire Yurong; Lu, Xiaomeng; Pan, Jun (2021)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 14/2021
    Using a unique FinTech data containing monthly individual-level consumption, investments, and payments, we examine how FinTech can lower investment barriers and improve risk-taking. Seizing on the rapid expansion of offline usages of Alipay in China, we measure individuals’ FinTech adoption by the speed and intensity with which they adopt the new technology. Our hypothesis is that individuals with high FinTech adoption, through repeated usages of the Alipay app, would build familiarity and trust, reducing the psychological barriers against investing in risky assets. Measuring risk-taking by individuals’ mutual-fund investments on the FinTech platform, we find that higher FinTech adoption results in higher participation and more risk-taking. Using the distance to Hangzhou as an instrument variable to capture the exogenous variation in FinTech adoption yields results of similar economic and statistical significance. Focusing on the welfare-improving aspect of FinTech inclusion, we find that individuals with high risk tolerance, hence more risk-taking capacity, and those living in under-banked cities stand to benefit more from the advent of FinTech.
  • Faria, Gonçalo; Verona, Fabio (2016)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 29/2016
    Published in Journal of Empirical Finance, 45, January, 2018, 228–242 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jempfin.2017.11.009
    We generalize the Ferreira and Santa-Clara (2011) sum-of-the-parts method for forecasting stock market returns. Rather than summing the parts of stock returns, we suggest summing some of the frequency-decomposed parts. The proposed method signi cantly improves upon the original sum-of-the-parts and delivers statistically and economically gains over historical mean forecasts, with monthly out-of-sample R2 of 2.60% and annual utility gains of 558 basis points. The strong performance of this method comes from its ability to isolate the frequencies of the parts with the highest predictive power, and from the fact that the selected frequency-decomposed parts carry complementary information that captures di erent frequencies of stock market returns.
  • Faria, Gonçalo; Verona, Fabio (2018)
    Journal of Empirical Finance January 2018
    Published in Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 29/2016.
    We generalize the Ferreira and Santa-Clara (2011) sum-of-the-parts method for forecasting stock market returns. Rather than summing the parts of stock returns, we suggest summing some of the frequency-decomposed parts. The proposed method significantly improves upon the original sum-of-the-parts and delivers statistically and economically gains over historical mean forecasts, with monthly out-of-sample R2 of 2.60% and annual utility gains of 558 basis points. The strong performance of this method comes from its ability to isolate the frequencies of the parts with the highest predictive power, and from the fact that the selected frequency-decomposed parts carry complementary information that captures different frequencies of stock market returns.
  • Faria, Gonçalo; Verona, Fabio (2017)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 1/2017
    We show that the out-of-sample forecast of the equity risk premium can be signi ficantly improved by taking into account the frequency-domain relationship between the equity risk premium and several potential predictors. We consider fi fteen predictors from the existing literature, for the out-of-sample forecasting period from January 1990 to December 2014. The best result achieved for individual predictors is a monthly out-of-sample R2 of 2.98 % and utility gains of 549 basis points per year for a mean-variance investor. This performance is improved even further when the individual forecasts from the frequency-decomposed predictors are combined. These results are robust for di fferent subsamples, including the Great Moderation period, the Great Financial Crisis period and, more generically, periods of bad, normal and good economic growth. The strong and robust performance of this method comes from its ability to disentangle the information aggregated in the original time series of each variable, which allows to isolate the frequencies of the predictors with the highest predictive power from the noisy parts.
  • Faria, Gonçalo; Verona, Fabio (2020)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 2/2020
    We assess the benefits of using frequency-domain information for active portfolio management. To do so, we forecast the bond risk premium and equity risk premium using a methodology that isolates frequencies (of the predictors) with the highest predictive power. The resulting forecasts are more accurate than those of traditional forecasting methods for both asset classes. When used in the context of active portfolio management, the forecasts based on frequency-domain information lead to better portfolio performances than when using the original time series of the predictors. It produces higher information ratio (0.57 vs 0.45), higher CER gains (1.12% vs 0.81%), and lower maximum drawdown (19.1% vs 19.6%).
  • Kozluk, Tomasz (2008)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 4/2008
    In a broad sample of developed and emerging economies over the past ten years we apply the approximate factor model in a search for common global and regional driving-forces in stock market returns and volatility. We focus particularly on two emerging stock markets - Russia and China, because of their unique characteristics and performance in the past years. We find that while Russian markets, like the CEEC region, substantially increased their integration with global stock markets, both the Chinese A- and B-share markets continued to move largely independently from global movements and only slightly increased in comovement with regional forces. We provide evidence of a general increase in global comovement of stock markets over the past decade and a decline in the role of regional forces, which imply a decrease of the effectiveness of cross-country hedging strategies. Keywords: stock markets, financial integration, Russia, China, global and regional integration; JEL Classification: F36, G11, G14.
  • Silvo, Aino (2018)
    Bank of Finland. Scientific monographs. E 52
    This thesis consists of an introductory chapter and three self-contained essays that apply insights from the microeconomic theory of corporate finance in a macroeconomic setting in order to explain and understand various market failures that were at the roots of the global financial crisis of 2007–2009. In particular, I study various forms of incomplete information in the credit market, and their implications on financial stability and on business cycles in the aggregate economy. I also seek to understand how monetary and macroprudential policies can be used to maintain financial stability, and how these two policies interact.
  • Korkeamäki, Timo; Virk, Nader; Wang, Haizhi; Wang, Peng (2018)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 19/2018
    We analyze preferences of foreign institutional investors in the Chinese stock market in a sample that covers 2003 to 2014. We find foreign investors changed their investment behavior during the sample period from generic patterns found in much of the world to China-specific patterns. The results suggest that foreign institutions learned to adjust their investment behavior to account for unique features of the Chinese market.
  • Bask, Mikael (2007)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 20/2007
    Published in Journal of Financial Stability, Volume 6, Issue 3, September 2010: 180-186
    The difference between market risk and potential market risk is emphasized and a measure of the latter risk is proposed. Specifically, it is argued that the spectrum of smooth Lyapunov exponents can be utilized in what we call (??2)-analysis, which is a method to monitor the aforementioned risk measures. The reason is that these exponents focus on the stability properties (?) of the stochastic dynamic system generating asset returns, while more traditional risk measures such as value-at-risk are concerned with the distribution of returns (?2). Keywords: market risk, potential market risk, smooth Lyapunov exponents, stochastic dynamic system, value-at-risk JEL classification number: G11
  • Haavio, Markus; Kauppi, Heikki (2011)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 24/2011
    We develop a dynamic multi-region model, with fluctuating regional house prices, where an owner-occupied household´s location choice depends on its current wealth and its current type and involves both consumption and investment considerations. The relative strength of the consumption motive and the investment motive in the location choice determines the equilibrium pattern of residential sorting, with a strong investment (consumption) motive implying sorting according to the type (wealth). The model predicts a negative relation between the size of house price fluctuations and the degree of residential sorting in the type dimension. Also, movers should be more sorted than stayers in the type dimension. These predictions are consistent with evidence from US metropolitan areas when income, education and age are used as proxies for household type. Keywords: Residential sorting, House prices, Consumption motive, Investment motive, Incomplete markets, Household mobility JEL Classification: D52, G11, R13, R21, R23
  • Knüpfer, Samuli; Rantapuska, Elias; Sarvimäki, Matti (2017)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 25/2017
    We show investors tend to hold the same securities as their parents. This intergenerational correlation is stronger for mothers and family members who are more likely to communicate with each other. An instrumental variables estimation and a natural experiment suggest the correlation reflects social influence. This influence runs not only from parents to children, but also vice versa. The resulting holdings of identical securities increase intergenerational correlations in portfolio choice, exacerbate wealth inequality, and amplify the consequences of behavioral biases.
  • Kaliva, Kasimir; Koskinen, Lasse (2006)
    Insurance Supervisory Authority. Research reports 2
    This paper proposes an autoregressive regime-switching model of stock price dynamics in which the process creates pricing bubbles in one regime while error-correction prevails in the other. In the bubble regime the stock price depends negatively on inflation. In the error-correction regime it depends on the price-dividend -ratio. We find that the probability of regime-switch depends on exogenous inflation and lagged price. The model is consistent with Shleifer and Vishny’s theoretical noise trader and arbitrageur model and Modigliani’s inflation illusion phenomenon. The results emphasize the importance of inflation and the price-dividend -ratio when assessing investment risk.
  • Faria, Gonçalo; Verona, Fabio (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 7/2018
    Published in Journal of Financial Markets as "The yield curve and the stock market: mind the long run" 2020 ; 50 ; September ; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.finmar.2019.100508
    We extract cycles in the term spread (TMS) and study their role for predicting the equity risk premium (ERP) using linear models. The low frequency component of the TMS is a strong and robust out-of-sample ERP predictor. It obtains out-of-sample R-squares (versus the historical mean benchmark) of 1.98% and 22.1% for monthly and annual data, respectively. It forecasts well also during expansions and outperforms several variables that have been proposed as good ERP predictors. Its predictability power comes exclusively from the discount rate channel. Contrarily, the high and business-cycle frequency components of the TMS are poor out-of-sample ERP predictors.
  • Faria, Gonçalo; Verona, Fabio (2020)
    Journal of Financial Markets September
    Published in BoF DP 7/2018 "The equity risk premium and the low frequency of the term spread" http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:bof-201804041428
    We extract cycles from the term spread and study their role for predicting the equity premium using linear models. When properly extracted, the trend of the term spread is a strong and robust out-of-sample equity premium predictor, both from a statistical and an economic point of view. It outperforms several variables recently proposed as good equity premium predictors. Our results support recent findings in the asset pricing literature that the low-frequency components of macroeconomic variables play a crucial role in shaping the dynamics of equity markets. Hence, for policymakers and financial market participants interested in gauging equity market developments, the trend of the term spread is a promising variable to look at.
  • Faria, Gonçalo; Verona, Fabio (2020)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 6/2020
    Online First in Quantitative Finance https://doi.org/10.1080/14697688.2020.1820071
    Any time series can be decomposed into cyclical components fluctuating at different frequencies. Accordingly, in this paper we propose a method to forecast the stock market's equity premium which exploits the frequency relationship between the equity premium and several predictor variables. We evaluate a large set of models and find that, by selecting the relevant frequencies for equity premium forecasting, this method significantly improves in both statistical and economic sense upon standard time series forecasting methods. This improvement is robust regardless of the predictor used, the out-of-sample period considered, and the frequency of the data used.