Browsing by Subject "J31"

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  • Pekkala Kerr, Sari; Kerr, William; Özden, Çağlar; Parsons, Christopher (2017)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 2/2017
    Forthcoming in Journal of Economic Perspectives
    The global distribution of talent is highly skewed and the resources available to countries to develop and utilize their best and brightest vary substantially. The migration of skilled workers across countries tilts the deck even further. Using newly available data, we first review the landscape of global talent mobility, which is both asymmetric and rising in importance. We next consider the determinants of global talent flows at the individual and firm levels and sketch some important implications. Third, we review the national gatekeepers for skilled migration and broad differences in approaches used to select migrants for admission. Looking forward, the capacity of people, firms, and countries to successfully navigate this tangled web of global talent will be critical to their success.
  • Pekkala Kerr, Sari; Kerr, William; Özden, Çağlar; Parsons, Christopher (2017)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 7/2017
    This paper reviews recent research regarding high-skilled migration. We adopt a data-driven perspective, bringing together and describing several ongoing research streams that range from the construction of global migration databases, to the legal codification of national policies regarding high-skilled migration, to the analysis of patent data regarding cross-border inventor movements. A common theme throughout this research is the importance of agglomeration economies for explaining high-skilled migration. We highlight some key recent findings and outline major gaps that we hope will be tackled in the near future.
  • Kerr, William R. (2013)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 31/2013
    Published in Journal of Monetary Economics, Volume 66, September 2014: 62-78
    In cross-sectional studies, countries with greater income inequality typically exhibit less support for government-led redistribution and greater acceptance of wage inequality (e.g., United States versus Western Europe). If individual nations evolve along this pattern, a vicious cycle could form with reduced social concern amplifying primal increases in inequality due to forces like skill-biased technical change. Exploring movements around these long-term levels, however, this study finds mixed evidence regarding the vicious cycle hypothesis. On one hand, larger compensation differentials are accepted as inequality grows. This growth in differentials is of a smaller magnitude than the actual increase in inequality, but it is nonetheless positive and substantial in size. Weighing against this, growth in inequality is met with greater support for government-led redistribution to the poor. These patterns suggest that short-run inequality shocks can be reinforced in the labor market but do not result in weaker political preferences for redistribution. JEL Classification: D31, D33, D61, D63, D64, D72, H23, H53, I38, J31, R11. Key Words: Inequality, Social Preferences, Social Norms, Redistribution, Welfare, Class Warfare.
  • Holz, Carsten A. (2014)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 13/2014
    The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how wages are being determined in China during the reform period. The paper focuses on the development of the regulatory framework since 1978 and proceeds by examining official regulations regarding labor market institutions and wage setting, and by evaluating their potential implications for actual wage setting. JEL codes: J3, J30, J31, J4, J41, J45, M5, M52, M54, M55, P2, P23 Keywords: wage determination, labor market institutions, minimum wages, wage classification system, wage level and structure, labor contracts, collective bargaining, public sector wages, wage-performance link
  • Jones, Derek C.; Kalmi, Panu; Kato, Takao; Mäkinen, Mikko (2017)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 33/2017
    Online First International Journal of Human Resource Management as "The Differing Effects of Individual and Group Incentive Pay on Worker Separation: Evidence using Finnish Panel Data". https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2019.1691624
    This paper investigates the role of individual incentive (II) and group incentive (GI) pay as determinants of worker separation. We use a large linked employer-employee panel data set for full-time male manufacturing workers during 1997-2006 from Finland. We follow actual job spells and switches of individual employees and define separation as worker exit from his current employer. The key finding for white-collar workers is that group incentive pay is associated significantly with increased probability of separation and hence diminished employment stability, but in large firms only. For blue-collar workers our results consistently indicate that individual incentive pay is associated with a decreased probability of separation and hence enhanced employment stability, both in small and large firms. Our finding that group incentive pay increases the risk of separation for white-collar workers is more consistent with theoretical work such as Lazear (2000) and Fehr and Gaechter (2000), while uncovering that individual incentive pay decreases employment stability for blue-collar workers supports theoretical work such as Parent (1999) and Paarsch and Shearer (2000).