Browsing by Subject "L1"

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  • Carlino, Gerald; Kerr, William R. (2015)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 27/2015
    This paper reviews academic research on the connections between agglomeration and innovation. We first describe the conceptual distinctions between invention and innovation. We then discuss how these factors are frequently measured in the data and note some resulting empirical regularities. Innovative activity tends to be more concentrated than industrial activity, and we discuss important findings from the literature about why this is so. We highlight the traits of cities (e.g., size, industrial diversity) that theoretical and empirical work link to innovation, and we discuss factors that help sustain these features (e.g., the localization of entrepreneurial finance).
  • Kultti, Klaus; Takalo, Tuomas; Vähämaa, Oskari (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 20/2018
    We study the ability of competitive coordination service platforms (such as auction sites and real estate agents) to facilitate trade in a directed search model where buyers have unit demands and each seller only has one good to sell. The sellers’ capacity constraint leads to a coordination problem as in a symmetric equilibrium without intermediation some sellers receive multiple buyers while some are left without any customers. We compare this equilibrium to one where sellers and buyers can choose to become intermediaries who coordinate the meetings. We find that roughly 20 percent of agents become intermediaries. As a result, a large part of the supply and demand in the economy vanishes. Moreover, the large amount of intermediaries actually reduces the meeting efficiency. Jointly, these effects imply that the gains from trade are roughly 25 percent lower than in the economy without intermediation.
  • Kultti, Klaus; Takalo, Tuomas; Vähämaa, Oskari (2021)
    Journal of Economics & Management Strategy 2
    Published in BoF DP 20/2018.
    We provide an example where establishing competitive coordination service platforms is so lucrative that they end up reducing welfare. We consider a canonical directed search model in which buyers have unit demands and sellers' capacity constraint leads to a coordination problem: in a symmetric equilibrium without intermediation some sellers receive too many and some too few buyers. We compare this equilibrium to one where sellers and buyers can choose to become intermediaries who coordinate the meetings. In this setup, roughly one‐fifth of agents become intermediaries. As a result, a large part of the supply and demand in the economy vanishes. Moreover, the large amount of intermediaries actually reduces the meeting efficiency. Jointly, these effects imply that the gains from trade are lower than that in the economy without intermediation.
  • Laine, Olli-Matti (2018)
    BoF Economics Review 2/2018
    This study examines the level, distribution and development of market power in Finland between 1975 and 2016. The paper applies the methods proposed by Hall (2018a) and Hall (2018b). In contrast to some other international evidence, the aggregate level of market power has not risen in Finland during the last decades. The estimate of country level markup ratio in Finland is 1,25. The paper also analyses the distribution of markup ratios across industries. About 90 per cent of industry level markup ratios are between 1 and 1,5. The results suggest that markups are typically higher in exporter firms than in non-exporter firms.