Browsing by Subject "L20"

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  • Herrala, Risto; Turk-Ariss, Rima (2012)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 29/2012
    Published in Journal of International Money and Finance, Volume 64, June 2016, Pages 1–15 as "Capital accumulation in a politically unstable region"
    The Arab Spring is a clear indicator of the urgency of achieving inclusive growth and ensuring job creation in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where private sector development is still hindered by limited access to credit. Following Kiyotaki and Moore's (1997) seminal model, we apply a novel methodological approach to a unique data set of MENA firms to estimate credit limits and their impacts on capital accumulation. Notably, we find higher credit limits in countries where the Arab Spring erupted than in other MENA countries and that their marginal effect on capital accumulation has been statistically and economically significant. Keywords: financing constraints, credit limits, MENA countries JEL: G31, L20, O16
  • Hyytinen, Ari; Lahtonen, Jukka; Pajarinen, Mika (2012)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 20/2012
    This paper uses entrepreneurs´ survival expectations around the time of market entry and subsequent venture exits to study entrepreneurial optimism. Using data on a large number of nascent entrepreneurs in the US and start-ups in Finland, we find that new entrepreneurs´ survival beliefs are on average optimistic but heterogeneous: Some are excessively optimistic, whereas a small subset holds unbiased beliefs. Entrepreneurial optimism is increasing in the relative (interpersonal) optimism and de- creasing in entrepreneurs´ level of education and industry experience in both countries. At least in Finland, those holding optimistic views are more likely to transit into entrepreneurship. JEL: D21, L20 Key words: entrepreneurship, survival, optimism, overestimation
  • Hyytinen, Ari; Putkuri, Hanna (2012)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 21/2012
    Published in Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Vol 50, Issue 1, February 2018: 55-76 ;
    A unique Finnish household-level data from 1994 to 2009 allow us to measure how households financial expectations are related to the sub- sequent outcomes. We use the difference between the two to measure forecast errors and household optimism and link the errors to households´ borrowing behaviour. We find that households making greatest optimistic forecast errors carry greater levels of debt and are most likely to suffer from excessive debt loads (overindebtedness). They also are less attentive to forecast errors than their pessimistic counterparts when forming their expectations for a subsequent period JEL: D21, L20 Key words: forecast errors, ex ante optimism, borrowing
  • De Haas, Ralph; Martin, Ralf; Muûls, Mirabelle; Schweiger, Helena (2021)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 6/2021
    We use data on 11,233 firms across 22 emerging markets to analyze how credit constraints and low-quality firm management inhibit corporate investment in green technologies. For identification we exploit quasi-exogenous variation in local credit conditions and in exposure to weather shocks. Our results suggest that both financial frictions and managerial constraints slow down firm investment in more energy efficient and less polluting technologies. Complementary analysis of data from the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) corroborates some of this evidence by revealing that in areas where banks deleveraged more after the global financial crisis, industrial facilities reduced their carbon emissions by less. On aggregate this kept local emissions 15% above the level they would have been in the absence of financial frictions.
  • Shumilov, Andrei (2008)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 24/2008
    Transition economies like Russia lack properly functioning financial markets and institu-tions, which results in severe agency and information problems. Business groups in such markets have the potential to offer benefits to member firms, but they also may destroy value. Using a unique database on membership in Russian business groups, we analyze the relationship between group affiliation and firm performance on the basis of a large panel of manufacturing firms for the period 1999-2002. We find that group membership has a posi-tive effect on productive efficiency, but gains from improved productivity in group affili-ates do not adequately translate into higher profitability. This is consistent with the expro-priation hypothesis, according to which controlling owners of groups extract private bene-fits by siphoning profits from their members. Among the different group categories deli-neated by type of controlling owner, the extent of profit dissipation is especially large in groups controlled by private domestic owners, who face a greater risk of possible future expropriation of property. Finally, we examine two potential sources of benefits of mem-bership in business groups: mutual insurance among affiliated firms and preferential treat-ment from the state via subsidies and tolerated tax arrears. We find that, during the period studied, groups neither provided mutual insurance nor did they receive larger support from the state than unaffiliated firms. Together with findings from the previous literature indi-cating that, prior to the 1998 financial crisis, group firms benefited from more efficient al-location of capital within groups than in the rest of the economy but not after the crisis, our results suggest that the advantages of group membership recede as the economic and insti-tutional environment gradually improves. Keywords: business groups, firm performance, transition economy, Russia JEL classification: G30, L20
  • Deng, Yuping; Wu, Yanrui; Xu, Helian (2019)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 4/2019
    A firm's top manager and a government official may be connected due to special circumstances. This social relationship or political connection may provide industrial polluters with protection or a “pollution shelter” which could lead to severe environmental deterioration. This paper aims to examine the link between political connections and firms’ pollution discharges by using Chinese data. Empirical results show that political connections are the institutional origin for firms to adopt strategic pollution discharges. Government officials who are young, of low education, promoted locally and in office for a relatively long time are more likely to build political connections with polluters. This phenomenon results in inadequate enforcement of regulation and emission control. The pollution discharges of politically connected firms also vary considerably due to firm heterogeneity. This study also shows that pollution shelter effects caused by political connections are more obvious in the central and western regions, prefecture cities and capital-intensive industries.