Browsing by Subject "O12"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-3 of 3
  • Deng, Yuping; Wu, Yanrui; Xu, Helian (2019)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 4/2019
    A firm's top manager and a government official may be connected due to special circumstances. This social relationship or political connection may provide industrial polluters with protection or a “pollution shelter” which could lead to severe environmental deterioration. This paper aims to examine the link between political connections and firms’ pollution discharges by using Chinese data. Empirical results show that political connections are the institutional origin for firms to adopt strategic pollution discharges. Government officials who are young, of low education, promoted locally and in office for a relatively long time are more likely to build political connections with polluters. This phenomenon results in inadequate enforcement of regulation and emission control. The pollution discharges of politically connected firms also vary considerably due to firm heterogeneity. This study also shows that pollution shelter effects caused by political connections are more obvious in the central and western regions, prefecture cities and capital-intensive industries.
  • Nivorozhkin, Eugene (2003)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 2/2003
    Published in Economics of Planning vol 37, no 1 (2004), pp. 25-45
    This paper uses a dynamic unrestricted capital structure model to examine the determinants of the private companies' target financial leverage and the speed of adjustment to it in two transition economies, the Czech Republic and Bulgaria.We explicitly model the adjustment of companies' leverage to a target leverage, and this target leverage is itself explained by a set of factors.The panel data methodology combines cross-section and time-series information.The results indicate that the Bulgarian corporate credit markets were less supply constrained than those of the Czech Republic during the period under investigation.Bulgarian companies adjusted much faster to the target leverage than Czech firms.The speed of adjustment related positively to the distance between target and observed ratio for Bulgarian companies while the relationship was neutral for Czech companies.The conservative policies of Czech banks and the exposure control were likely responsible for the slower adjustment among the larger companies while the opposite were true for Bulgarian banks and companies. G30, G32, O12, O52 capital structure; leverage; dynamic adjustment model; the Czech Republic; Bulgaria
  • Beck, Thorsten; Degryse, Hans; De Haas, Ralph; van Horen, Neeltje (2014)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 14/2014
    Using a novel way to identify relationship and transaction banks, we study how banks’ lending techniques affect funding to SMEs over the business cycle. For 21 countries we link the lending techniques that banks use in the direct vicinity of firms to these firms’ credit constraints at two contrasting points of the business cycle. We show that relationship lending alleviates credit constraints during a cyclical downturn but not during a boom period. The positive impact of relationship lending in an economic downturn is strongest for smaller and more opaque firms and in regions where the downturn is more severe.