Browsing by Subject "O15"

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  • Delis, Manthos D.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Kazakis, Pantelis (2012)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 18/2012
    Published in Review of Finance, 18,5,2014: 1811-1846
    This paper provides cross-country evidence that variations in bank regulatory policies result in differences in income distribution. In particular, the overall liberalization of banking systems decreases the Gini coefficient and the Theil index significantly. However, this effect fades away for countries with low levels of economic and institutional development and for market-based economies. Among the different liberalization policies, the most significant negative effect on inequality is that of credit controls, which also seem to have a lasting effect on the Gini coefficient. Banking supervision and the abolition of interest rate controls also have a negative yet short-run impact on income inequality. A notable finding is that liberalization of securities markets increases income inequality substantially and over a long time span, suggesting that securitization widens the distribution of income. We contend that these findings have new implications for the effects of bank regulations, besides those related to their impact on financial stability. Keywords: Bank regulations; Income inequality; Cross-country panel data; Instrumental variables; Panel VAR JEL classification: G28; O15; O16
  • Marques II, Israel (2018)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 7/2018
    When does business support the expansion of social policy in the developing world? Existing work on managers’ preferences has tended to concentrate on the developed world, where governments can credibly commit to policy, tax evasion is constrained, and mechanisms exist to hold the bureaucracy accountable for policy implementation. In this paper, I relax these assumptions, arguing that weak institutions create opportunities for some firms to shift costs onto others: making social policy more attractive. I argue that firms with political connections are uniquely positioned to benefit from subsidies and property rights protection, which decreases the cost of social policy, while firms with low visibility can evade taxes and free-ride off universalistic social policy. Such firms will support social policy even where institutions are poor. I test this argument using a survey of 666 firms in 10 Russian regions.
  • Wang, Hao; Fidrmuc, Jan; Tian, Yunhua (2018)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 14/2018
    This article investigates how the legacy of colonization shapes the impact of inward FDI on employment in the Chinese labor market. The analysis utilizes provincial panel on overall employment and employment in the service sector during 2006-15. We find that inward FDI significantly promotes employment and that this relationship is stronger in regions once colonized by Western countries. Conversely, regions with a legacy of Japanese colonization display a weaker, and even negative, relationship between FDI and employment. These findings are robust to controlling for the length and intensity of colonization, as well as for endogeneity of FDI.
  • Perugini, Cristiano (2020)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 11/2020
    The microeconomic drivers of medium- and short-term income mobility in Russia over the period 1996–2016 are investigated using data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS). Focusing on the role of access to credit in triggering household income growth, the descriptive analysis suggests that high levels of mobility materialising in pro-poor patterns of growth may accompany Russia’s notoriously high levels of inequality. Controlling for other personal and household characteristics, the econometric model for drivers of income mobility indicates that access to credit boosts income mobility. Complementary empirical evidence suggests that this effect may unfold through channels related to the labour market and non-labour sources of income.
  • Kanbur, Ravi; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Xiaobo (2017)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 6/2017
    China’s high income and wealth inequality has long attracted the interest of policymakers and re-searchers, yet surprisingly little has been done since 2010 on inequality trends. Given China’s evolving economic structure and the government’s adoption of new policy tools in recent years, we revisit the latest data on Chinese inequality and assess the impacts of economic and policy changes on income distribution. After a quarter century of rapid, sustained increase, we see Chinese inequality plateauing and even diminishing. To verify this finding, we draw upon a range of data sources and measures of inequality. We examine inequality trends through decomposition by income source and population subgroups, and consider possible explanations such as policy shifts and structural trans-formation of the Chinese economy. The findings suggest that the narrative on Chinese inequality today should focus on clarifying the factors driving this apparent inequality turnaround.
  • Dreger, Christian; Wang, Tongsan; Zhang, Yanqun (2014)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 7/2014
    Published in Development and Change, Volume 46, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages 1331-1344
    Capital investment and exports have driven China's remarkable economic growth for decades, but recent trends have put pressure on the government to move to a more consumption- driven model of growth. Unfortunately, China's institutional framework does little at the moment to spur household consumption. While the country's weak social security setup and highly regulated financial markets are routinely cited as disincentives to private consumption, the role of the hukou household registration system in depressing consumption gets less attention. Controlling for income levels on datasets from 2002 and 2007, we show the average propensity to consume is significantly lower for internal migrants to cities. Official figures suggest that China in 2013 had about 260 million internal migrants. These individuals are often separated from their families for long periods and denied access to public services in the cities where they work. The government's current urbanization strategy calls for increasing migrant populations in cities, which, in the absence of hukou reform, is likely to further dampen consumption. Keywords: Chinese private consumption, urbanization strategy, hukou system JEL: E21, O15, R23