Browsing by Subject "R23"

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  • Wang, Jiao; Mayes, David; Wan, Guanghua (2005)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 18/2005
    Using a CGE model (PRCGEM) updated to 2002, the paper explores how WTO membership could affect earnings in 40 industries across 31 regions (and 8 regional blocks) of China during the period 2002 2007.Taking into account labour movement between regions within China, the direct contribution of WTO membership to overall economic growth and development is predicted to be small, with a rise in real GDP of only 6.48% short term and 5.6% long term. However, structural economic change and the WTO shock should increase regional output, especially in the established coastal economies.Regional labour movement is found to increase 69.2% at the completion of economic structural reforms.A slight decrease in the Gini coefficient for income inequality is also anticipated. Keywords: Applied CGE modelling, China, WTO, labour movement, inequality JEL classification: C68, O18, R12, R23
  • Haavio, Markus; Kauppi, Heikki (2009)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 14/2009
    Empirical evidence suggests that local jurisdictions are internally more heterogeneous than standard sorting models predict. We develop a dynamic multiregion model, with fluctuating regional house prices, where an owner-occupying household's location choice depends on its current wealth and its current 'match' and involves both consumption and investment considerations. The relative weights of the consumption and investment motives in the location choice determine the equilibrium pattern of residential sorting, with a strong investment (consumption) motive implying sorting according to match (wealth). The model predicts a negative relation between size of house price fluctuations and residential sorting in the match dimension. Also movers should be more sorted than stayers. These predictions are consistent with evidence from US metropolitan areas when income, age and education are used as proxies for the match. Keywords: residential sorting, house prices, incomplete markets, owneroccupation, household mobility JEL classification numbers: D31, D52, R13, R21, R23
  • Haavio, Markus; Kauppi, Heikki (2011)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 24/2011
    We develop a dynamic multi-region model, with fluctuating regional house prices, where an owner-occupied household´s location choice depends on its current wealth and its current type and involves both consumption and investment considerations. The relative strength of the consumption motive and the investment motive in the location choice determines the equilibrium pattern of residential sorting, with a strong investment (consumption) motive implying sorting according to the type (wealth). The model predicts a negative relation between the size of house price fluctuations and the degree of residential sorting in the type dimension. Also, movers should be more sorted than stayers in the type dimension. These predictions are consistent with evidence from US metropolitan areas when income, education and age are used as proxies for household type. Keywords: Residential sorting, House prices, Consumption motive, Investment motive, Incomplete markets, Household mobility JEL Classification: D52, G11, R13, R21, R23
  • Dreger, Christian; Wang, Tongsan; Zhang, Yanqun (2014)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 7/2014
    Published in Development and Change, Volume 46, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages 1331-1344
    Capital investment and exports have driven China's remarkable economic growth for decades, but recent trends have put pressure on the government to move to a more consumption- driven model of growth. Unfortunately, China's institutional framework does little at the moment to spur household consumption. While the country's weak social security setup and highly regulated financial markets are routinely cited as disincentives to private consumption, the role of the hukou household registration system in depressing consumption gets less attention. Controlling for income levels on datasets from 2002 and 2007, we show the average propensity to consume is significantly lower for internal migrants to cities. Official figures suggest that China in 2013 had about 260 million internal migrants. These individuals are often separated from their families for long periods and denied access to public services in the cities where they work. The government's current urbanization strategy calls for increasing migrant populations in cities, which, in the absence of hukou reform, is likely to further dampen consumption. Keywords: Chinese private consumption, urbanization strategy, hukou system JEL: E21, O15, R23
  • Eerola, Essi; Saarimaa, Tuukka (2015)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 30/2015
    ​This paper studies how much public housing generates rent savings for the tenants, how these savings are distributed among the tenants, and whether the tenants reside in better quality neighborhoods than similar low-income private rental tenants. Our rent savings estimates are based on a hedonic regression and detailed data on the private and public rental housing units from the city of Helsinki. We estimate that the total subsidy to public housing tenants is considerable and comparable in size to the housing allowance, the main tenant-based housing program. We also find that the subsidy is less targeted towards low-income households than the housing allowance. Regarding neighborhood quality, we find that public housing tenants live in lower quality neighborhoods than similar households living in private rental housing. This result suggests that public housing is not better than the housing allowance in delivering better neighborhood quality to low-income households.