Browsing by Subject "ulkomaankauppa"

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  • Bank of Finland (2015)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 5/2015
    Finland is a small open economy, where fluctuations in exports and imports have shaped the big picture of developments in the economy. A historical review of these developments suggests that the current situation provides no such conditions for rapid export growth supporting the economy as those seen in the earlier growth phases of economic history. Despite facing difficulties, the forest industry is still one of the pillars of Finnish exports alongside the machinery and metal industry.
  • Lindgren, Verner (1927)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 7 ; 7 ; July
  • Solitander, Axel (1932)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 12 ; 12 ; December
  • Woo, Wing Thye (2018)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 7/2018
    Our principal policy suggestion to China is that, because China’s economy in 2018 is very different from that in 1978, there should be more reciprocity in China’s trade and investment relations with the advanced economies. China should not only give national treatment in the near future to foreign firms but should also set up a mechanism to start easing up on foreign acquisition of Chinese firms in a manner that is consistent with China’s national security concerns. Our principal policy suggestion to the US is to stop equating strategic competition with economic competition. Strategic competition is normally a zero-sum game while economic competition is usually a zero-sum game in the short-run, but generally creates a win-win outcome in the long-run. National economic dynamism and economic resilience emerge from international economic competition and not from sheltering domestic high-tech firms permanently.
  • Bank of Finland (2019)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 4/2019
    Global economic growth has slowed substantially in the current year. One cause has been the trade war between the United States and China, which has escalated further since the spring. Now both countries have already imposed additional customs duties on most of their bilateral trade in goods. Meanwhile, Brexit has added further to the uncertainties over the direction of the economy.
  • Kaitila, Ville (2001)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 3/2001
    We analyse trade between Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries and the European Union during 1993-1998 using three methods.First, we calculate the share of intra-industry trade to determine the extent to which two countries trade in similar products.Second, we calculate similarity indices to determine the extent to which the structure of the exports of two countries is similar to a third country.Third, we calculate the revealed comparative advantage of CEE countries in the EU internal market and analyse the results in a two-dimensional space showing relative labour-skills and capital-intensity.We also depict how the factor intensity of comparative advantage has changed since 1993.With this last approach, we find that the comparative advantage of various CEE countries have developed in quite different directions. Some countries have evolved comparative advantage in industries requiring much skilled labour, while others have moved in the opposite direction.This differentiation is also reflected in degrees of capital intensity.A few CEE countries have not shifted in this two-dimensional space. Key words: EU, eastern enlargement, comparative advantage, factor intensity
  • Lintunen, Julia (2021)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 1/2021
    Since becoming a WTO member in 2001, China has negotiated numerous regional trade agreements with astonishing speed. This paper provides an overview of China’s current free trade agreements and examines the economic importance of two major Asian regional trade agreements for China. The academic literature often treats China’s free trade agreements as driven more by political, rather than economic, interests. The agreements are seen as shallow and concluded with minor economic partners. In fact, China’s approach to trade agreements has evolved over time and cumulative impact of these agreements has been positive for trade between China and its agreement partners. The recently concluded Asian regional free trade agreement, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), should positively influence trade for both China and other participating Asian countries. China could also benefit economically from joining the other major regional trade agreement, the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP).
  • Cheung, Yin-Wong; Chinn, Menzie D.; Qian, XingWang (2012)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 14/2012
    Published in Journal of International Money and Finance, Volume 31, Issue 8, 2012, Pages 2127-2146
    We find that Chinese trade flows respond to economic activity and relative prices -- as represented by a trade weighted exchange rate -- but the relationships are not always precisely or robustly estimated. Chinese exports are generally well-behaved, rising with foreign GDP and decreasing as the Chinese renminbi (RMB) appreciates. However, the estimated income elasticity is sensitive to the treatment of time trends. Estimates of aggregate imports are more problematic. In many cases, Chinese aggregate imports actually rise in response to a RMB depreciation and decline with Chinese GDP. This is true even after accounting for the fact a substantial share of imports are subsequently incorporated into Chinese exports. We find that some of these counter-intuitive results are mitigated when we disaggregate the trade flows by customs type, commodity type, and the type of firm undertaking the transactions. However, for imports, we only obtain more reasonable estimates of elasticities when we allow for different import intensities for different components of aggregate demand (specifically, consumption versus investment), or when we include a relative productivity variable. Keywords: China, imports, exports, real exchange rate JEL: F14, F41
  • Newby, Elisa (2013)
    Euro & talous. Rahapolitiikka ja kansainvälinen talous 4
    Arvonlisäykseen perustuva ulkomaankaupan tilastointi jäljittää jokaisen maan ja sektorin tuottaman arvonlisäyksen tuotantoprosessin eri vaiheissa. Uusi OECD:n ja WTO:n laatima tietokanta antaa päätalousalueiden kauppavirtojen epätasapainosta sekä tuonnin ja viennin välisestä riippuvuudesta erilaisen kuvan kuin perinteiset tullitilastot. Tässä artikkelissa tarkastellaan myös euroalueen kauppataseiden epätasapainoa arvonlisäysperusteisesti. Arvonlisäykseen perustuvat tilastot eivät korvaa perinteisiä bruttopohjaisia ulkomaankauppatilastoja, mutta tarjoavat vaihtoehtoisen tavan tarkastella ulkomaankaupan merkitystä etenkin sellaisten maiden kannalta, jotka ovat integroituneet globaaleihin arvoketjuihin.
  • Korhonen, Iikka; Randveer, Mare (2000)
    BOFIT Online 1/2000
    This paper assesses the impacts of Economic and Monetary Union and the euro on developments within the eight most advanced accession candidates in Central and Eastern Europe.The single currency completes the project for a single market in Europe, and overall, clear efficiency gains for participating countries are expected. This should spur foreign trade with e.g. the accession countries. Accession candidates may use a variety of foreign exchange rate regimes before they join the EU, but ultimately their economic policies become a matter of common interest.Pressure to peg to the euro obviously increases as membership approaches, but there is compelling evidence that countries should hold back on pegging to the euro until they have achieved sufficient convergence to attain credibility for a policy of fixed exchange rates. Keywords: Economic and Monetary Union, Central and Eastern Europe, exchange rate policy, integration
  • Taro, Lauri (1999)
    BOFIT Online 9/1999
    Russian August 1998 economic crisis effected Baltic countries more than was expected.Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have sunk into recession.Russia remained a key trading partner and a sizeable market for all three Baltic republics exporters also after the declaration of independence despite the sometimes tense political situation.Current year s figures show a heavy decline in Baltic s exports to Russia and also decline in the growth of these economies.Growth forecasts for each Baltic country have been revised down.Food and beverage as well as processing industries as a whole have suffered the most.The decline of purchasing power in Russia due to the rouble devaluation and the weaknesses in the Russian economy will restrain Baltic countries exports to Russia for years to come. Keywords: Baltic countries, foreign trade, Russia
  • Bank of Finland (1988)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin
    Finland's Trade Policy and Trade Policy Agreements by Veli Sundbäck 3 Trends in Finnish Current Account in the 1980s by Tapio Peura 10 Foreign Trade in the Finnish Economy by Pentti Forsman and Tapio Peura 16 Structural Developments in Foreign Trade by Pentti Forsman 22 Finland's Foreign Trade in Services by Jorma Hilpinen and Pirkko Miikkulainen 28 Finland's Trade and Economic Cooperation with the CMEA Countries by Terhi Kivilahti 34 Finland's Commercial Relations with Developing Countries by Alec Aalto 41 High Technology in Finnish Foreign Trade by Harri Luukkanen 48 European Integration and Finland by Veli Sundbäck 52 Apart from the articles by Hilpinen and Miikkulainen and Aalto, all these articles have previously appeared in various issues of the Bulletin in 1988.
  • Bank of Finland (2018)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 3/2018
    Finland's economic growth will continue and remain broadly based. Strong global demand, improved cost-competitiveness, growth in household income and favourable financing conditions will all support growth over the forecast period. GDP growth forecasts for 2018–2020 stand at 2.9%, 2.2% and 1.7%. The declining growth rate in the immediate years ahead reflects the moderate long-term outlook for growth. Inflation will remain close to 1% over the years 2018–2019 before gathering pace and reaching 1.5% in 2020.
  • Fung, K. C.; Garcia-Herrero, Alicia; Seade, Jesús (2015)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 5/2015
    In this paper, we highlight three characteristics of China-Latin American economic relations. China-Latin American economic relationships are asymmetric, comparative-advantage driven and motivated by both political and economic considerations. There are several co-operative measures on which China and Latin America can focus. China can be encouraged to invest not only in mining in Latin America but also in infrastructure and manufacturing facilities. China and Latin America can deepen their Trans-Pacific production network. Utilizing the advantages of being close to and in the same time zone as the U.S. market, this pan China-Latin America supply chain can be a potent supplier and exporter to the United States.
  • Song, Ke; Xia, Le (2019)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 19/2019
    This research empirically examines the impact of China’s Renminbi (RMB) bilateral swap agree-ments (BSAs) on the usage of the currency in cross-border trade transactions. By using a unique dataset from SWIFT including cross-border settlement messages of 91 countries/regions between October 2010 and November 2015, we confirm that the signing of a RMB BSA helps to increase the number, the value and the proportion of RMB settlement in cross-border trade. Our results are robust with respect to the choice of different models, including multi-level mixed model, two-stage regression model, and difference-in-difference model. In addition to justifying the effectiveness of China’s BSA-signing strategy to promote the RMB usage in trade settlement, our results clarify that the signing of those RMB BSAs is not purely for China’s political ends as some scholars claim.
  • Arponen, Annikki; Korhonen, Iikka; Nuutilainen, Riikka; Rautava, Jouko; Simola, Heli (2014)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 16/2014
    Joulukuussa järjestetyn BOFIT Kiina-tietoiskun viisi esitystä käsittelivät Kiinan taloutta ja yhteiskuntaa monesta eri näkökulmasta. Tähän julkaisuun on koottu esitysten keskeinen sisältö artikkeleina. Ensimmäinen artikkeli käsittelee Kiinan talouskehitystä aivan viime aikoina. Toisessa artikkelissa käydään läpi Kiinan toimia rahoitusmarkkinoiden vapauttamiseksi ja mm. talletussuojan käyttöönottoa. Kolmannen artikkelin aiheena on Kiinan poliittisen järjestelmän mahdollisuus uudistua. Neljäs ja viides artikkeli käsittelevät Kiinan taloudellista integraatiota muiden maiden kanssa. Neljännessä artikkelissa tarkastellaan Kiinan ja Venäjän välisiä taloussuhteita, ja viidennen artikkelin aiheina ovat Kiinan suorat ulkomaiset sijoitukset sekä maan toimeliaisuus uusien kehityspankkien perustamisessa. Hakusanat: Kiina, Venäjä, talouskehitys, talouspolitiikka, taloudellinen integraatio, talousuudistus, inflaatio, juan, pankit, kehityspankki. Kaikki esitykset ovat nähtävissä osoitteessa
  • Rautava, Jouko; Nuutilainen, Riikka; Norring, Anni; Korhonen, Iikka; Kallio, Jyrki (2015)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 11/2015
    Joulukuussa järjestetyn BOFIT Kiina-tietoiskun viisi esitystä käsittelivät Kiinan taloutta ja yhteiskuntaa monesta eri näkökulmasta. Tähän julkaisuun on koottu esitysten keskeinen sisältö artikkeleina. Ensimmäinen artikkeli käsittelee Kiinan talouskehitystä aivan viime aikoina. Toisessa artikkelissa käydään läpi Kiinan taloustilastoinnin ongelmia ja joitakin vaihtoehtoisia talousindikaattoreita. Kolmannen osan aiheena on mm. Kiinan ja Suomen välinen kauppa sekä sijoitukset. Neljännessä artikkelissa käydään läpi Kiinan rahoitusmarkkinoiden ja pääomaliikkeiden vapauttamista. Viides esitys käsittelee Kiinan kommunistisen puolueen roolia sisä- ja ulkopolitiikassa. Hakusanat: Kiina, talouskehitys, bruttokansantuote, vienti, tuonti, pankkijärjestelmä, sisäpolitiikka, ulkopolitiikka. Kaikki esitykset ovat nähtävissä osoitteessa:
  • Korhonen, Iikka; Korhonen, Vesa; Lainela, Seija; Simola, Heli; Solanko, Laura (2014)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 7/2014
    Kesäkuussa järjestetyn BOFIT Venäjä-tietoiskun viisi esitystä käsitteli Venäjän hidastuvaa talouskasvua monesta eri näkökulmasta. Tähän julkaisuun on koottu esitysten keskeinen sisältö artikkeleina. Ensimmäinen artikkeli keskittyy Venäjän talouskehitykseen aivan viime aikoina. Toinen artikkeli käsittelee Venäjän rahoitus- ja pankkimarkkinoiden kehitystä mm. yritysten rahoituksen saatavuuden näkökulmasta, kun taas kolmannen artikkelin aihe on Ukrainan vaikea taloustilanne. Neljäs ja viiden artikkeli käsittelevät Venäjän taloudellista integraatiota muiden maiden kanssa. Neljäs artikkeli tarkastelee syntymässä olevaa Euraasian liittoa, ja viidennen artikkelin aiheena on Venäjän asema kansainvälisissä tuotantoketjuissa. Hakusanat: Venäjä, Ukraina, talouskehitys, talouspolitiikka, lainananto, taloudellinen integraatio. Kaikki esitykset ovat nähtävissä osoitteessa
  • Korhonen, Vesa; Fungáčová, Zuzana; Solanko, Laura; Korhonen, Iikka; Simola, Heli (2015)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 7/2015
    Kesäkuussa järjestetty BOFIT Venäjä-tietoiskun käsitteli Venäjän vaikeaa taloudellista tilannetta useasta eri näkökulmasta. Ensimmäinen artikkeli käsittelee Venäjän talouskehitystä viime aikoina. Tuotanto laskee useimmilla sektoreilla, ja kotitalouksien reaalitulot ovat laskeneet selvästi. Lähiaikojen talouskehitys riippuu mm. öljyn hinnasta. Toinen artikkeli käsittelee rahoituksen välittymistä Venäjällä. Näyttää siltä, että pienten ja keskisuurten mahdollisuus saada mm. pankkilainaa pienenee entisestään. Kolmas artikkeli käy läpi Venäjän pitkän aikavälin kasvumahdollisuuksiin vaikuttavia tekijöitä. Mm. työvoiman supistumisen takia talouskasvu ei todennäköisesti keskimäärin ylitä kahta prosenttia seuraavien kahden vuosikymmenen aikana. Neljäs esitys osoittaa, miten Venäjän taloudelliset siteet EU:hun ovat edelleen hyvin monimuotoiset, ja puheet mahdollisesta ’kääntymisestä itään’ ovat tähän mennessä olleet vähintään ennenaikaisia. Kaikki esitykset ovat nähtävissä osoitteessa