Browsing by Subject "vähittäiskauppa"

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  • Kim, Byung-Yeon (2000)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 9/2000
    Published in Economic History Review vol 55, no 1 (2002), pp. 105-127
    Using recently available Soviet material, this paper analyses the causes of repressed inflation in the Soviet consumer market during 1965-1989.We found that retail price subsidies, which rose from 4% of state budget expenditure in 1965 to 20% in the late 1980s, intensified consumer market disequilibrium.The provision of these subsidies had negative effects on the market by maintaining the purchasing power of households for consumer goods and by increasing the budget deficit.Furthermore, the demand of enterprises for consumer goods without legitimate permission tended to increase during 1965-1989. Keywords: repressed inflation, Soviet Union, retail price subsidies, the siphoning effect, the budget deficit
  • Mehrotra, Aaron; Rautava, Jouko (2007)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 11/2007
    Published in Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2008, pp. 225-239
    This paper evaluates the usefulness of business sentiment indicators for forecasting developments in the Chinese real economy.We use data on diffusion indices collected by the People's Bank of China for forecasting industrial production, retail sales and exports.Our bivariate vector autoregressive models, each composed of one diffusion index and one real sector variable, generally outperform univariate AR models in forecasting one to four quarters ahead.Similarly, principal components analysis, combining information from various diffusion indices, leads to enhanced forecasting performance.Our results indicate that Chinese business sentiment indicators convey useful information about current and future developments in the real economy.They also suggest that the official data provide a fairly accurate picture of the Chinese economy. Keywords: forecasting, diffusion index, VAR, China. JEL: E32, E37, P27
  • Mariotto, Carlotta; Verdier, Marianne (2015)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 23/2015
    Over the recent years, the development of Internet banking and mobile banking has had a considerable impact on competition in the retail banking industry. In some countries, the regulatory framework has been adapted to allow non-banks to operate in retail payments and compete with banks for deposits. Several platforms or large retailers have started to offer innovative financial products to their customers. In this paper, we survey the issues related to innovation and competition in Internet banking and mobile banking and discuss some perspectives for future research.
  • (1971)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 45 ; 10 ; October
  • Aura, Matti (1980)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 54 ; 8 ; August
  • (1973)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 47 ; 7 ; July
  • Luther, Georg (1955)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 29 ; 4 ; April
  • Mahlamäki, Anna; Solanko, Laura; Tekoniemi, Merja; Ollus, Simon-Erik (2005)
    BOFIT Online 2005/8
    Venäjän kokonaistuotanto on kasvanut keskimäärin hieman yli 6 % vuodessa viimeiset viisi vuotta.Tuotannon nopea kasvu on johtunut vuoden 1998 kriisin yhteydessä romahtaneen ruplan tuomasta lisääntyneestä kilpailukyvystä sekä energian ja raaka-aineiden Venäjälle suotuisasta hintakehityksestä.Tämä sektorikatsaus käy kokonaistuotannon kehityksen lisäksi läpi viiden keskeisen tuotannonalan (teollisuus-, rakennus- ja maataloustuotanto, kuljetussektori ja vähittäiskauppa) kehityksen kuluvalla vuosikymmenellä.Lisäksi katsauksessa on käsitelty Suomen kannalta mielenkiintoista Venäjän metsäteollisuutta. Avainsanat: Venäjä, BKT, teollisuustuotanto, rakennustuotanto, maataloustuotanto, metsäteollisuus, kuljetussektori, vähittäiskauppa