Browsing by Subject "yhteiskunta"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-8 of 8
  • Fang, Ying; Zhao, Yang (2009)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 9/2009
    This paper estimates the effect of institutions on economic performance using cross-city data from China. We argue that China's ongoing reforms are part of a long and circuitous historical transition from antiquity to modernity, which started about 150 years ago. Learning from Western countries has been a central aspect of this historical process. The West had a laThis paper estimates the effect of institutions on economic performance using cross-city data from China. We argue that China's ongoing reforms are part of a long and circuitous historical transition from antiquity to modernity, which started about 150 years ago. Learning from Western countries has been a central aspect of this historical process. The West had a large influence on the early stage of this transition, which has persisted to current reforms. This study uses the enrollment in Christian missionary lower primary schools in China in 1919 as an instrument for present institutions. Employing a two-stage least squares method, we find that the effect of institutions on economic performance in China is positive and significant. The results are robust according to various tests including additional controls, such as geographic factors and government policy-related variables.
  • Rissanen, Raija; Harell, Timo; Määttä, Päivi; Saajasto, Tiina (1992)
    IDÄNTALOUKSIEN KATSAUKSIA. REVIEW OF ECONOMIES IN TRANSITION 1/1992
  • Goel, Rajeev K. (2008)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 10/2008
    Published in Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Vol. 15, Iss. 3, 2012 as "Business regulation and taxation: effects on cross-country corruption"
    This paper uses recent data on a large cross-section of countries to study the determinants of corrupt activity. The main contribution is to examine the effects of different types and severities of government regulations on corrupt activities. The results show that greater prosperity and democracy lead to less corrupt activity. Variables representing the degree of fractionalization across three dimensions and least developed nations are statistically insignificant. Having more regulation, including number of procedures and time involved across four categories (business startup, licensing, property registration, and taxation), leads to greater corruption. More regulatory procedures, especially for business startups and property registrations, have the most corruption-enhancing effect. Whereas lengthier procedures also generally spur corruption, there are important differences. Finally, higher regulatory transactions costs do not seem to significantly impact corruption. Policy implications are discussed. Keywords: Corruption, Business startup, Licenses, Property, Taxes, Fractionalization, De-mocracy, Prosperity JEL Classification: H26; H87; K42.
  • Mayes, David G. (2002)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 76 ; 1
  • Mayes, David G. (2002)
    EURO & TALOUS 1
    Nykyaikainen, entistä nopeammin muuttuva talous voi lisätä sosiaalista syrjäytymistä.Syrjäytymistä ei pystytä täysin estämään, mutta sitä voidaan vähentää.David G.Mayes tarkastelee artikkelissaan erilaisia tapoja lisätä sosiaalista yhteen-kuuluvuutta ilman että talouden vakaus siitä kärsii.
  • Korhonen, Iikka; Lainela, Seija; Simola, Heli; Solanko, Laura; Sutela, Pekka (2008)
    BOFIT Online 6
    Russia now ranks among the world's ten largest economies and continues to experience rapid growth. Industrial investment and real incomes are soaring. Federal finances are in excellent shape, giving the government a welcome opportunity to invest in long-term development of human capital, improvement of living conditions and bolstering of the country's infrastructure. Fixing Russia, however, is not without its challenges. For long-neglected sectors such as health care and education, financial infusions alone will be insufficient to bring change - structural reforms are needed. Double-digit inflation has also returned after slowing throughout most of the 2000s. The rise in prices has been driven by a global increase in food prices, along with a number of domestic factors. Finland has benefited from Russia's economic growth, and exports to Russia have risen rapidly even with the loss of market share to competitors. Energy's significance for the Russian economy remains large and the country has huge opportunities to improve its efficiency of energy use and production through e.g. price deregulation. While the direction is clear, the road ahead for Russia will not be easy. Russia seeks to become a leading global innovator over the medium term - a perhaps overambitious goal given the starting point. Key words: Russia, economy, social issues, foreign trade, energy
  • Helelä, Timo (1969)
    Suomen Pankki. D 21
    Esillä olevassa tutkimuksessa on lähdetty siitä käsityksestä, että työmarkkinakysymyksiä käsittelevien yleistävien ja synteettisten esitysten aikaansaamiseksi olisi saatava tehdyksi tietty peruskartoitus.Tutkimusaihe on sen vuoksi rajoitettu käsittämään työnseisaukset ja teolliset suhteet Suomessa vuosina 1919-1939. Tutkimustehtäväksi on asetettu kehityksen seuraaminen ja työnseisausten asettaminen puitteisiin, joita voitaisiin nimittää sosio-ekonomisiksi. Tarkoituksena ei siis ole ollut yleistyksien aikaansaaminen eikä annettujen hypoteesien testaaminen, vaan erään yleistäkin mielenkiintoa herättäneen ilmiön ja siihen liittyvien tekijöiden selvittäminen. Rakenteeltaan ja käsittelytavaltaan työ jakautuu periaatteessa kahteen osaan. Toisessa luvussa on virallisten työnseisaustilastojen antamissa rajoissa pyritty yleiskuvan luomiseen, kehityksen seuraamiseen ja valittujen ajanjaksojen erikoisluonteen tarkasteluun. Kolmannesta luvusta eteenpäin suoritetaan käsittely perioditarkasteluna.
  • Yakovlev, Andrei (2016)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 2/2016
    ​Contrary to the focus on the events of the last two years (2014–2015) associated with Crimea and military conflict in Eastern Ukraine, I stress here that serious changes in Russian internal politics (with strong pressure on political opposition, state propaganda and sharp anti-Western rhetoric, and the fight against ‘foreign agents’) became visible already in 2012. Geopolitical ambitions to revise the ‘global order’ (introduced by USA after USSR collapse) and the increased role of Russia in ‘global governance’ were declared by leaders of the country much earlier – with the famous Munich speech of Vladimir Putin in 2007. These ambitions were based on the robust economic growth of the mid-2000s, which encouraged the Russian ruling elite to adopt the view that Russia (with its huge energy resources) is a new economic super-power. In this paper I will show that the concept of ‘militant Russia’ in a proper sense can be attributed rather to the period of the mid-2000s. After 2008–2009, the global financial crisis and especially the ‘Arab spring’ and mass political protests against electoral fraud in Moscow in December 2011, one can speak mostly of ‘militant’ attempts of the Russian ruling elite to defend its power and assets.