Browsing by Subject "C43"

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  • Gluschenko, Konstantin (2006)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 9/2006
    Lacking data on price levels across locations (countries, national regions, etc.) for crossspace comparisons, researchers resort to local consumer price indexes (CPIs) over time to evaluate these levels.This approach unfortunately fails to specify, even generally, the exactness of such proxies.Worse, the method is silent on whether the results are consistent, at least qualitatively, with those obtained using actual price levels.This paper aims to find an answer empirically, using data across Russian regions.Through comparison of CPIproxied price levels with direct evaluations of regional price levels (i.e.Surinov spatial price indexes and the costs of a purchasing power basket), biases that distort the qualitative pattern of inter-regional differences are identified.Cross-region distributions for real income (calculated with CPI-proxied and directly evaluated price levels) for several points in time are estimated and compared.The CPI-induced biases are found to generally overstate inter-regional disparities. JEL Classification: C43, E31, P22, R19 Keywords: consumer price index, spatial price index, real income, nonhomothetic preferences, Russia, Russian regions
  • Amstad, Marlene; Ye, Huan; Ma, Guonan (2018)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 11/2018
    Inflation in emerging markets is often driven by large, persistent changes in food and energy prices. Core inflation measures that neglect or under-weight volatile CPI subcomponents such as food and energy risk excluding information helpful in assessing current and future inflation trends. This paper develops an underlying inflation gauge (UIG) for China, extracting the persistent part of the common component in a broad dataset of price and non-price variables. Our proposed UIG for China avoids the excess volatility reduction that plagues traditional Chinese core inflation measures. When forecasting headline CPI, the proposed UIG outperforms traditional core inflation measures over a variety of samples.
  • Huotari, Jarkko (2015)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 7/2015
    ​I propose a financial stress index (FSI) for the Finnish financial system that aims to reflect the functionality of the financial system and provide an aggregate measure of financial stress in the money, bond, equity and foreign exchange markets and the banking sector. The FSI is a composite index that combines information from these markets and provides a measure of stress in the financial system as a whole. The FSI has obvious benefits for all participants in the financial markets who need a tool for monitoring the functioning of the financial markets, as it provides information on systemic stress events which are not as easily captured with the stress measures of individual markets or sectors. The ESRB recommendation (ESRB, 2014a) also states that national or international FSIs could be used when making a decision about the release of the counter-cyclical capital buffer. Hence, the index can also be used to support the macro-prudential policy decision making in Finland.
  • Qin, Duo; He, Xinhua (2012)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 25/2012
    Ways of extracting financial condition indices (FCI) are explored and alternative FCIs external to the Chinese economy are constructed to model their predictive content. The exploration aims at highlighting the rich and varied dynamic features of financial variables underlying FCIs and the importance of synchronising dynamic information between FCIs and the real-sector variables to be forecasted. The modelling experiment aims at improving the forecasting model upon which the FCIs are assessed. Four variables are chosen as the likely macro channel of the FCIs affecting the Chinese economy. It is found that the FCI-led models enjoy forecasting advantages over a benchmark model in three out of the four variables, although the benchmark model is not dominated by the FCI-led models when judged by in-sample encompassing tests. The evidence indicates the increasing exposure of the Chinese economy to the global financial conditions. Key words: financial index, dynamic factor, VAR, error correction, encompassing JEL Classification: E17, F37, G17, C43
  • Benkovskis, Konstantins; Wörz, Julia (2012)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 19/2012
    Published in Empirical Economics, Volume 51, Issue 2, Sept. 2016, pp 707–735
    This analysis of global competitiveness of emerging market economies accounts for non-price aspects of competitiveness. Building on the methodology pioneered by Feenstra (1994) and Broda and Weinstein (2006), we construct an export price index that adjusts for changes in the set of competitors (variety) and changes in non-price factors (quality in a broad sense) for nine emerging economies (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia and Turkey). The highly disaggregated dataset covers the period 1999?2010 and is based on the standardized 6-digit Harmonized System (HS). Unlike studies that use a CPI-based real effective exchange rate, our method highlights notable differences in non-price competitiveness across markets. China shows a huge gain in international competitiveness due to non-price factors, suggesting that China critics may be overstressing the role of renminbi undervaluation in explaining China's competitive position. Oil exports account for strong improvement in Russia's non-price competitiveness, as well as the modest losses of competitiveness for Argentina and Indonesia. Brazil, Chile, India and Turkey show discernible improvements in their competitive position when accounting for non-price factors. Mexico's competitiveness deteriorates regardless of the index chosen. JEL Classification: C43, F12, F14, L15 Keywords: non-price competitiveness, quality, relative export price, emerging countries
  • Benkovskis, Konstantins; Wörz, Julia (2013)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 18/2013
    The paper proposes a theoretical framework to explain gains and losses in export market shares by their price and non-price determinants. Starting from a demand-side model à la Armington (1969), we relax several restrictive assumptions to evaluate the contribution of unobservable changes in taste and quality, taking into account differences in elasticities of substitution across product markets. Using highly disaggregated trade data from UN Com-trade, our empirical analysis for the major world exporters (G7 and BRIC countries) reveals the dominant role of non-price factors in explaining the competitive gains of BRIC countries and concurrent decline in the G7's share of world exports. JEL classification: C43, F12, F14, L15 Keywords: export market share decomposition, non-price competitiveness, real effective exchange rate