Browsing by Subject "C53"

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  • Oinonen, Sami; Paloviita, Maritta (2014)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 29/2014
    This paper examines aggregated inflation expectations based on the ECB Survey of Professional Forecasters (ECB SPF). We analyse possible impacts of changing panel composition on short and long term point forecasts and forecast uncertainties using approach, which is based on a set of sub-panels of fixed composition. Our results indicate that the unbalanced panel data do not cause systematic distortions to aggregated survey information. However, micro level analysis of expectations would also be useful, especially in times of wide disagreement across forecasters and high levels of inflation uncertainty. Keywords: survey data, expectations, changing panel composition
  • Paloviita, Maritta; Virén, Matti (2014)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 8/2014
    This paper studies forecasts errors at the micro level using two alternative survey data sets. The main focus is on inflation and real GDP growth forecasts in the ECB Survey of Professional Forecasters. For comparison, inflation forecasts in the US Survey of Professional Forecasters are also examined. Our analysis indicates that forecast errors are positively related to the subjective uncertainties based on probability distributions, but not to disagreement (standard deviation of point forecasts). We also show that forecast errors, which are rather persistent, are related to forecast revisions. Revisions of expectations generally lead to larger forecast errors. Subjective uncertainty measures, which are available at the time of forecasting, are useful in assessing future forecast errors. Key words: Forecasting, Survey data, Expectations JEL Classification: C53, E37, E31
  • Stanisławska, Ewa; Paloviita, Maritta; Łyziak, Tomasz (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 10/2019
    Published in Economics Letters 2021 ; 206 ; September "Consumer inflation views : micro-level inconsistencies and macro-level measures"
    Using a novel approach based on micro-level survey responses, we assess the reliability of aggregated inflation expectations estimates in the European Commission Consumer Survey. We identify the share of consumers, whose qualitative and quantitative views on expected increase of prices do not match each other. Then we consider the impact of inconsistent survey responses on balance statistics and mean values of quantitative inflation expectations. We also analyze expectations’ formation estimating the sticky-information models. The results, based on Finnish and Polish data, suggest that even if the fraction of inconsistent survey responses is non-negligible, it matters neither for the aggregated figures of inflation views, nor for understanding of the formation of inflation expectations by consumers. We conclude that micro-level inconsistencies do not reduce the reliability of the current EC Consumer Survey dataset. Our results also indicate that inconsistent responses are not important drivers of the inflation overestimation bias displayed in the data.
  • Doumpos, Michael; Hasan, Iftekhar; Pasiouras, Fotios (2017)
    Economic Modelling August
    A number of recent studies compare the performance of Islamic and conventional banks with the use of individual financial ratios or efficiency frontier techniques. The present study extends this strand of the literature, by comparing Islamic banks, conventional banks, and banks with an Islamic window with the use of a bank overall financial strength index. This index is developed with a multicriteria methodology that allows us to aggregate various criteria capturing bank capital strength, asset quality, earnings, liquidity, and management quality in controlling expenses. We find that banks differ significantly in terms of individual financial ratios
  • Kaaresvirta, Juuso; Mehrotra, Aaron (2008)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 22/2008
    Published in Economic change and restructuring, vol. 42, no. 4 (2009), pp. 263-271
    We use business survey data collected by the People's Bank of China for inflation forecast-ing. Some survey indicators lead to enhanced forecasting performance relative to the uni-variate benchmark model, especially for a period of moderate inflation. However, the esti-mated models do not do a good job of tracking the recent pickup in Chinese inflation, due to increases in food prices. Keywords: inflation forecasting; business surveys; China. JEL classification: C53; E31.
  • Lee, Jim; Crowley, Patrick M. (2009)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 11/2009
    This paper investigates the extent to which euro area monetary policy has responded to evolving economic conditions in individual member states as opposed to the euro area as a whole. Based on a forward-looking Taylor rule-type policy reaction function, we conduct counterfactual exercises that compare the monetary policy behaviour of the ECB under alternative hypothetical scenarios: (1) the euro member states make individual policy decisions, and (2) the ECB responds to the economic conditions of individual members. Stress measures are then constructed to evaluate the degree of divergence of member state economies under these two hypothetical scenarios. The results we obtain reflect the extent of heterogeneity among the national economies in the monetary union, indicating that euro area policy rates have been particularly close to the 'counterfactual' interest rates of the largest euro members and countries with similar economic conditions, namely Germany, Austria, Belgium and France. Keywords European Central Bank, monetary policy reaction, Taylor rule, counterfactual analysis JEL classification numbers E52, C53,
  • Haavio, Markus; Mendicino, Caterina; Punzi, Maria Teresa (2013)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 35/2013
    Published in Applied Economics Letters, Volume 21, Issue 6, April 2014, Pages 407-412 ;
    This article empirically studies the linkages between financial variable downturns and economic recessions. We present evidence that real asset prices tend to lead real cycles, while loan-to-GDP and loan-to-deposit ratios lag them. Using a probit analysis, we document that downturns in real asset prices, particularly real house prices, are useful leading indicators of economic recessions. Keywords: macro-financial linkages; turning point analysis; probit models JEL classification numbers: C53, E32, E37, G17
  • Martins, Manuel M. F.; Verona, Fabio (2020)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 4/2020
    We show that the New Keynesian Phillips Curve (NKPC) outperforms standard benchmarks in forecasting U.S. inflation once frequency-domain information is taken into account. We do so by decomposing the time series (of inflation and its predictors) into several frequency bands and forecasting separately each frequency component of inflation. The largest statistically significant forecasting gains are achieved with a model that forecasts the lowest frequency component of inflation (corresponding to cycles longer than 16 years) flexibly using information from all frequency components of the NKPC inflation predictors. Its performance is particularly good in the returning to recovery from the Great Recession.
  • Mikosch, Heiner; Solanko, Laura (2019)
    Russian Journal of Money and Finance 1
    This paper presents a pseudo real‐time out‐of‐sample forecast exercise for short‐term forecasting and nowcasting quarterly Russian GDP growth with mixed‐frequency data. We employ a large set of indicators and study their predictive power for different subperiods within the forecast evaluation period 2008–2016. Four indicators consistently figure in the list of top-performing indicators: the Rosstat key sector economic output index, the OECD composite leading indicator for Russia, household banking deposits, and money supply M2. Aside from these indicators, the top indicators in the 2008–2011 evaluation period are traditional real‐sector variables, while those in the 2012–2016 evaluation period largely comprise monetary, banking sector and financial market variables. We also compare the forecast accuracy of three different mixed‐frequency forecasting model classes (bridge equations, MIDAS models, and U-MIDAS models). Differences between the performance of model classes are generally small, but for the 2008–2011 period MIDAS models and U-MIDAS models outperform bridge equation models.
  • Nyberg, Henri; Saikkonen, Pentti (2012)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 33/2012
    Published in Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Volume 76, August 2014, Pages 536-555
    We propose simulation-based forecasting methods for the noncausal vector autoregressive model proposed by Lanne and Saikkonen (2012). Simulation or numerical methods are required because the prediction problem is generally nonlinear and, therefore, its analytical solution is not available. It turns out that different special cases of the model call for different simulation procedures. Simulation experiments demonstrate that gains in forecasting accuracy are achieved by using the correct noncausal VAR model instead of its conventional causal counterpart. In an empirical application, a noncausal VAR model comprised of U.S. inflation and marginal cost turns out superior to the bestfitting conventional causal VAR model in forecasting inflation. Keywords: Noncausal vector autoregression, forecasting, simulation, importance sampling, inflation. JEL codes: C32, C53, E3l.AC
  • Schaling, Eric; Eijffinger, Sylvester; Tesfaselassie, Mewael (2004)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 23/2004
    In this paper we incorporate the term structure of interest rates into a standard inflation forecast targeting framework.Learning about the transmission process of monetary policy is introduced by having heterogeneous agents - ie central bank and private agents - who have different information sets about the future sequence of short-term interest rates.We analyse inflation forecast targeting in two environments.One in which the central bank has perfect knowledge, in the sense that it understands and observes the process by which private sector interest rate expectations are generated, and one in which the central bank has imperfect knowledge.In the case of imperfect knowledge, the central bank has to learn about private sector interest rate expectations, as the latter affect the impact of monetary policy through the expectations theory of the term structure of interest rates.Here, following Evans and Honkapohja (2001), the learning scheme we investigate is that of least-squares learning (recursive OLS) using the Kalman filter.We find that optimal monetary policy under learning is a policy that separates estimation and control.Therefore, this model suggests that the practical relevance of the breakdown of the separation principle and the need for experimentation in policy may be limited. Key words: learning, rational expectations, separation principle, Kalman filter, term structure of interest rates JEL classification numbers: C53, E43, E52, F33
  • Oinonen, Sami; Paloviita, Maritta (2017)
    Journal of Business Cycle Research 2
    This study examines short- and long-term inflation expectations in the unbalanced panel of the ECB Survey of Professional Forecasters. We focus on dispersion of forecaster views comparing two sub-groups of survey respondents based on forecast accuracy. We then examine possible differences between regular and irregular forecasters, and assess the impacts of varying panel composition on aggregated survey information. Our analysis indicates that survey participation is not necessarily completely random, i.e., statistically independent of forecaster views or confidence levels. While the study provides evidence that aggregated survey responses are generally a reliable proxy for inflation expectations in the euro area, one should also pay attention to expectations at the micro level, especially in periods of increased forecast uncertainty.
  • Oinonen, Sami; Paloviita, Maritta (2016)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 15/2016
    Journal of Business Cycle Research, 13, 2017: 139 - 163
    This study examines aggregated short- and long-term inflation expectations in the unbalanced panel of the ECB Survey of Professional Forecasters. The focus of the study is on heterogeneity of expectations and changing panel composition. First, we compare two sub-groups of survey respondents divided on the basis of forecast accuracy. Then, we examine possible differences between regular and irregular forecasters. Finally, we assess the relevance of aggregated forecast revisions in the unbalanced panel by constructing alternative forecast revisions based on the set of sub-panels of fixed composition. The results show that, because of heterogeneity across individual views, aggregated inflation expectations in the ECB SPF must be analysed also on a micro level.
  • Paloviita, Maritta; Virén, Matti (2012)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 37/2012
    Published in Empirica, Volume 41, Issue 1, 2014, Pages 69-81
    This paper studies uncertainty using the ECB Survey of Professional Forecasters' data. We consider both inflation and real GDP growth forecasts at the micro level and explore forecast uncertainty using two alternative measures, i.e. conventional standard deviation of individual point forecasts and the median values of individual forecasters' uncertainty, which are based on subjective probability distributions of survey respondents. Our analysis indicates that individual inflation uncertainty is closely related to the output growth uncertainty. In forming expectations, individual forecasters seem to behave according to an uncertainty-augmented hybrid specification of the New Keynesian Phillips curve. We also find evidence that inflation uncertainty has a negative impact on economic activity by decreasing output growth and increasing inflation and lowering the price sensitiveness of aggregate supply. Key words: Forecasting, Survey data, Expectations, Phillips curve JEL Classification: C53, E37, E31
  • Martins, Manuel M. F.; Verona, Fabio (2021)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 8/2021
    Policymakers and researchers see inflation characterized by cyclical fluctuations driven by changes in resource utilization and temporary shocks, around a trend influenced by inflation expectations. We study the in-sample inflation dynamics and forecast inflation out-of-sample by analyzing a New Keynesian Phillips Curve (NKPC) in the frequency domain. In-sample, while inflation expectations dominate medium-to-long-run cycles, energy prices dominate short cycles and business-to-medium cycles once expectations became anchored. While statistically significant, unemployment is not economically relevant for any cycle. Out-of-sample, forecasts from a low-frequency NKPC significantly outperform several benchmark models. The long-run component of unemployment is key for such remarkable forecasting performance.
  • Fernald, John; Hsu, Eric; Spiegel, Mark M. (2015)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 29/2015
    How reliable are China’s GDP and other data? We address this question by using trading partner exports to China as an independent measure of its economic activity from 2000–2014. We find that the information content of Chinese GDP improves markedly after 2008.We also consider a number of plausible, non-GDP indicators of economic activity that have been identified as alternative Chinese output measures. We find that activity factors based on the first principal component of sets of indicators are substantially more informative than GDP alone. The index that best matches activity in-sample uses four indicators: electricity, rail freight, an index of raw materials supply, and retail sales. Adding GDP to this group only modestly improves in-sample performance. Moreover, out of sample, a single activity factor without GDP proves the most reliable measure of economic activity.
  • Schaling, Eric (2003)
    Bank of Finland. Discussion papers 20/2003
    In this paper we analyse disinflation policy in two environments. In the first, the central bank has perfect knowledge, in the sense that it understands and observes the process by which private sector inflation expectations are generated; in the second, the central bank has to learn the private sector inflation forecasting rule.With imperfect knowledge, results depend on the learning scheme that is employed.Here, the learning scheme we investigate is that of least-squares learning (recursive OLS) using the Kalman filter.A novel feature of a learning-based policy as against the central bank's disinflation policy under perfect knowledge is that the degree of monetary accommodation (the extent to which the central bank accommodates private sector inflation expectations) is no longer constant across the disinflation, but becomes state-dependent.This means that the central bank's behaviour changes during the disinflation as it collects more information. Key words: learning, rational expectations, separation principle, Kalman filter, time-varying parameters, optimal control JEL classification numbers: C53, E43, E52, F33
  • Porshakov, Alexey; Deryugina, Elena; Ponomarenko, Alexey; Sinyakov, Andrey (2015)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 19/2015
    Published in Zhournal Novoi Ekonomicheskoi Associacii, Volume 2, Issue 30, 2016: 60-76
    Real-time assessment of quarterly GDP growth rates is crucial for evaluation of economy’s current perspectives given the fact that respective data is normally subject to substantial publication delays by national statistical agencies. Large information sets of real-time indicators which could be used to approximate GDP growth rates in the quarter of interest are in practice characterized by unbalanced data, mixed frequencies, systematic data revisions, as well as a more general curse of dimensionality problem. The latter issues could, however, be practically resolved by means of dynamic factor modeling that has recently been recognized as a helpful tool to evaluate current economic conditions by means of higher frequency indicators. Our major results show that the performance of dynamic factor models in predicting Russian GDP dynamics appears to be superior as compared to other common alternative specifications. At the same time, we empirically show that the arrival of new data seems to consistently improve DFM’s predictive accuracy throughout sequential nowcast vintages. We also introduce the analysis of nowcast evolution resulting from the gradual expansion of the dataset of explanatory variables, as well as the framework for estimating contributions of different blocks of predictors into now-casts of Russian GDP.
  • Itkonen, Juha; Juvonen, Petteri (2017)
    BoF Economics Review 6/2017
    Timely and accurate assessment of current macroeconomic activity is crucial for policymakers and other economic agents. Nowcasting aims to forecast the current economic situation ahead of official data releases. We develop and apply a large Bayesian vector autoregressive (BVAR) model to nowcast quarterly GDP growth rate of the Finnish economy. We study the BVAR model’s out-of-sample performance at different forecasting horizons, and compare to various bridge models and a dynamic factor model.
  • Benchimol, Jonathan; Bounader, Lahcen (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 9/2018
    Optimal monetary policy under discretion, commitment, and optimal simple rules regimes is analyzed through a behavioral New Keynesian model. Flexible price level targeting dominates under discretion; flexible inflation targeting dominates under commitment; and strict price level targeting dominates when using optimal simple rules. The optimality of a particular regime is found to be independent of bounded rationality and only regime 's stabilizing properties condition its hierarchy. For every targeting regime, the policymaker 's knowledge of agents' myopia is decisive in terms of policy reactions. Welfare evaluation of different targeting regimes reveals that bounded rationality is not necessarily associated with decreased welfare. Several forms of economic inattention can increase welfare.