Browsing by Author "Castelnuovo, Efrem"

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  • Angelini, Giovanni; Caggiano, Giovanni; Castelnuovo, Efrem; Fanelli, Luca (2020)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 13/2020
    How large are government spending and tax multipliers? The fiscal proxy-SVAR literature provides heterogeneous estimates, depending on which proxies - fiscal or non-fiscal - are used to identify fiscal shocks. We reconcile the existing estimates via flexible vector autoregressive model that allows to achieve identification in presence of a number of structural shocks larger than that of the available instruments. Our two main findings are the following. First, the estimate of the tax multiplier is sensitive to the assumption of orthogonality between total factor productivity (non-fiscal proxy) and tax shocks. If this correlation is assumed to be zero, the tax multiplier is found to be around one. If such correlation is nonzero, as supported by our empirical evidence, we find a tax multiplier three times as large. Second, we find the spending multiplier to be robustly larger than one across different models that feature different sets of instruments. Our results are robust to the joint employment of different fiscal and non-fiscal instruments.
  • Castelnuovo, Efrem; Greco, Luciano; Raggi, Davide (2008)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 20/2008
    This paper estimates regime-switching monetary policy rules featuring trend inflation using post-WWII US data. We find evidence in favour of regime shifts and time-variation of the inflation target. We also find a drop in the inflation gap persistence when entering the Great Moderation sample. Estimated Taylor rule parameters and regimes are robust across different monetary policy models. We propose an `internal consistency' test to discriminate among our estimated rules. Such a test relies upon a feedback mechanism running from the monetary policy stance to the inflation gap. Our results support the stochastic autoregressive process as the most consistent model for trend inflation, above all when conditioning to the post-1985 subsample. Keywords: active and passive Taylor rules, trend inflation, inflation gap persistence, Markov-switching models JEL classification numbers: E52, E61, E62
  • Caggiano, Giovanni; Castelnuovo, Efrem; Pellegrino, Giovanni (2017)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 6/2017
    Published in European Economic Review, 100, November 2017: 257-272
    We employ a parsimonious nonlinear Interacted-VAR to examine whether the real effects of uncertainty shocks are greater when the economy is at the Zero Lower Bound. We find the contractionary effects of uncertainty shocks to be statistically larger when the ZLB is binding, with differences that are economically important. Our results are shown not to be driven by the contemporaneous occurrence of the Great Recession and high financial stress, and to be robust to different ways of modeling unconventional monetary policy. These findings lend support to recent theoretical contributions on the interaction between uncertainty shocks and the stance of monetary policy.
  • Caggiano, Giovanni; Castelnuovo, Efrem; Pellegrino, Giovanni (2017)
    European Economic Review November
    BoF DP 6/2017
    We employ a parsimonious nonlinear Interacted-VAR to examine whether the real effects of uncertainty shocks are greater when the economy is at the Zero Lower Bound. We find the contractionary effects of uncertainty shocks to be statistically larger when the ZLB is binding, with differences that are economically important. Our results are shown not to be driven by the contemporaneous occurrence of the Great Recession and high financial stress, and to be robust to different ways of modeling unconventional monetary policy. These findings lend support to recent theoretical contributions on the interaction between uncertainty shocks and the stance of monetary policy.
  • Caggiano, Giovanni; Castelnuovo, Efrem (2021)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 1/2021
    We estimate a novel measure of global financial uncertainty (GFU) with a dynamic factor framework that jointly models global, regional, and country-specific factors. We quantify the impact of GFU shocks on global output with a VAR analysis that achieves self-identifcation via a combination of narrative, sign, ratio, and correlation restrictions. We find that the world output loss that materialized during the great recession would have been 13% lower in absence of GFU shocks. We also unveil the existence of a global finance uncertainty multiplier: the more global financial conditions deteriorate after GFU shocks, the larger the world output contraction is.
  • Castelnuovo, Efrem; Surico, Paolo (2009)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 30/2009
    This paper re-examines the VAR evidence on the price puzzle and proposes a new theoretical interpretation. Using actual data and two identification strategies based on zero restrictions and model-consistent sign restrictions, we find that the positive response of prices to a monetary policy shock is historically limited to the sub-samples that are typically associated with a weak interest rate response to inflation. Using pseudo data generated by a sticky price model of the US economy, we then show that the structural VARs are capable of reproducing the price puzzle only when monetary policy is passive. The omission in the VARs of a variable capturing expected inflation is found to account for the price puzzle observed in simulated and actual data.
  • Arias, Jonas E.; Ascari, Guido; Branzoli, Nicola; Castelnuovo, Efrem (2020)
    International Journal of Central Banking 3 ; June
    This paper studies the challenge that increasing the inflation target poses to equilibrium determinacy in a mediumsized New Keynesian model without indexation fitted to the Great Moderation era. For moderate targets of the inflation rate, such as 2 or 4 percent, the probability of determinacy is near one conditional on the monetary policy rule of the estimated model. However, this probability drops significantly conditional on model-free estimates of the monetary policy rule based on real-time data. The difference is driven by the larger response of the federal funds rate to the output gap associated with the latter estimates.
  • Castelnuovo, Efrem; Nisticò, Salvatore (2010)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 11/2010
    Published in Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Volume 34, Issue 9, September 2010: 1700-1731
    We improve the precision of the test of the implicit contract model that Beaudry and DiNardo proposed twenty years ago. Our data set allows us to define the precise industry and plant of a particular employment relationship, link local labour market characteristics and company characteristics to the individual level of wages, and control for composition effects. We find evidence in favour of the spot market model of wage setting in the whole sample, but there is significant variation across industries and educational levels. In particular, the spot market matters most for low-skill workers, while the implicit contract model with one-sided limited commitment applies better to high-skill workers.
  • Castelnuovo, Efrem (2009)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 20/2009
    Published in Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Volume 74, Issue 3, June 2012: 425-452
    We estimate a new-Keynesian DSGE model with the cost channel to assess its ability to replicate the price puzzle ie the inflationary impact of a monetary policy shock typically arising in VAR analysis. In order to correctly identify the monetary policy shock, we distinguish between a standard policy rate shifter and a shock to trend inflation ie the time-varying inflation target set by the Fed. While offering some statistical support to the cost channel, our estimated model clearly implies a negative inflation reaction to a tightening of monetary policy. We offer a discussion of the possible sources of mismatch between the VAR evidence and our own.
  • Caggiano, Giovanni; Castelnuovo, Efrem; Kima, Richard (2020)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 11/2020
    We estimate a three-variate VAR using proxies of global financial uncertainty, the global financial cycle, and world industrial production to simulate the effects of the jump in financial uncertainty observed in correspondence of the Covid-19 outbreak. We predict the cumulative loss in world output one year after the uncertainty shock due to Covid-19 to be about 14%.
  • Caggiano, Giovanni; Castelnuovo, Efrem; Nodari, Gabriela (2017)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 8/2017
    1.7.2020: PDF updated
    We investigate the role played by systematic monetary policy in tackling the real effects of uncertainty shocks in U.S. recessions and expansions. We model key indicators of the business cycle with a nonlinear VAR that allows for different dynamics in busts and booms. Uncertainty shocks are identi ed by focusing on historical events that are associated to jumps in nancial volatility. Uncertainty shocks hitting in recessions are found to trigger a more abrupt drop and a faster recovery in real activity than in expansions. Counterfactual simulations suggest that the effectiveness of systematic monetary policy in stabilizing real activity is greater in expansions. Finally, we provide empirical and narrative evidence pointing to a risk management approach by the Federal Reserve.
  • Andreasen, Martin M.; Caggiano, Giovanni; Castelnuovo, Efrem; Pellegrino, Giovanni (2021)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 13/2021
    This paper uses a nonlinear vector autoregression and a non-recursive identification strategy to show that an equal-sized uncertainty shock generates a larger contraction in real activity when growth is low (as in recessions) than when growth is high (as in expansions). An estimated New Keynesian model with recursive preferences and approximated to third order around its risky steady state replicates these state-dependent responses. The key mechanism behind this result is that firms display a stronger upward nominal pricing bias in recessions than in expansions, because recessions imply higher inflation volatility and higher marginal utility of consumption than expansions.