Browsing by Subject "D22"

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  • Castañeda Dower, Paul; Pyle, William (2016)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 17/2016
    Inefficiently organized, factory-dominated cityscapes have been one of the more enduring legacies of the twentieth century experiment with socialist central planning in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Drawing on a unique survey of large, formerly state-owned urban industrial firms in Russia, we explore how land tenure reforms affect the pace at which this legacy is being erased. Specifically, the privatization of plots is shown to promote the development of a rental market that transfers land use rights away from socialist-era industrial users. We address the potential endogeneity of land tenure in two ways, including using a measure of regional variation in urban land policy as an instrumental variable.
  • Laine, Olli-Matti (2018)
    BoF Economics Review 2/2018
    This study examines the level, distribution and development of market power in Finland between 1975 and 2016. The paper applies the methods proposed by Hall (2018a) and Hall (2018b). In contrast to some other international evidence, the aggregate level of market power has not risen in Finland during the last decades. The estimate of country level markup ratio in Finland is 1,25. The paper also analyses the distribution of markup ratios across industries. About 90 per cent of industry level markup ratios are between 1 and 1,5. The results suggest that markups are typically higher in exporter firms than in non-exporter firms.
  • De Haas, Ralph; Martin, Ralf; Muûls, Mirabelle; Schweiger, Helena (2021)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 6/2021
    We use data on 11,233 firms across 22 emerging markets to analyze how credit constraints and low-quality firm management inhibit corporate investment in green technologies. For identification we exploit quasi-exogenous variation in local credit conditions and in exposure to weather shocks. Our results suggest that both financial frictions and managerial constraints slow down firm investment in more energy efficient and less polluting technologies. Complementary analysis of data from the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) corroborates some of this evidence by revealing that in areas where banks deleveraged more after the global financial crisis, industrial facilities reduced their carbon emissions by less. On aggregate this kept local emissions 15% above the level they would have been in the absence of financial frictions.
  • Krupkina, Anna; Ponomarenko, Alexey (2013)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 31/2013
    We estimate money demand models for certain monetary aggregates across different institutional sectors (a novelty for the Russian case). Our results comprise a collection of money demand equations that include different combinations of explanatory variables. Comparing the validity of these models on the basis of statistical criteria is virtually implausible. Therefore we suggest the simultaneous employment of a whole set of such models and illustrate the approach by presenting the distribution of monetary overhangs calculated on the basis of the estimated models. Keywords: monetary aggregates, money demand, households, non-financial corporations JEL classification: E41, C22, D14, D22.
  • Sokolov, Vladimir; Solanko, Laura (2016)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 20/2016
    We examine how regional-level political influence affects firm financial performance and survival. Combining representative survey data on mid-sized manufacturing firms in Russia with official registry data, we find that politically influential firms exhibit higher profitability and retain larger financial investments than non-influential firms. At the same time, we find no association between regional political influence and access to bank lending. Most importantly, our empirical analysis suggests that the benefits of influence may be transient. Influential firms experienced significantly lower growth during our 2004–2010 sample period than non-influential firms. Moreover, influential firms had a significantly higher probability of going bankrupt after the 2008 global financial crisis than non-influential firms.
  • Yakovlev, Andrei (2011)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 10/2011
    Using data from a 2009 survey of 957 manufacturing enterprises, this paper examines relations between the state and business as well as priority differences in the distribution of governmental support by federal, regional and local authorities. Regression analysis reveals that a "model of exchange" is the predominant pattern as opposed to "state capture" (in the case of big firms) or "grabbing hand" (in the case of SMEs), both of which were typical of the 1990s. However, there are some differences in priorities at different levels of government. The federal government in 2007-2008 provided more support to state-owned and mixed enterprises providing stable employment, while regional authorities more often supported firms that were pursuing modernization. These trends could pave the way for a shift in governmental policy at the regional level from "state capture"/"grabbing hand" to the Chinese-style "helping hand" model. Keywords: state capture, state-business relations, Russia JEL: D22, H25, H71
  • Nurmi, Satu; Vanhala, Juuso; Virén, Matti (2020)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 8/2020
    We analyze the demographics of zombie firms and durations of zombie spells as well as their determinants, including an application on public subsidies using firm level population panel data from Finland. Firm-level analysis of firm demographics reveals that zombie-firms, as commonly defined in the literature, are often not truly distressed firms but rather companies with temporarily low revenues relative to interest payments. More importantly, we find that roughly a third of these firms are in fact growing companies and two thirds recover from the zombie status to become healthy firms. We also show that the increase of zombie firms over the past 15 years has mainly been driven by cyclical factors, as opposed to a secular trend. In our policy application on government subsidies to firms, estimation results strongly suggest that subsidy-receiving firms are less likely to die, regardless of the type of subsidy. However, with regard to recovery there is heterogeneity in the effects depending on the type of firm and the type of subsidy received. Thus, we do not find a robust positive association of subsidies with zombie recovery.
  • Davydov, Denis; Sihvonen, Jukka; Solanko, Laura (2021)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 5/2021
    This paper uses textual analysis to examine how European corporations assess sanctions in their annual reports. Using observations from a panel of almost 11,500 corporate annual reports from 2014–2017, we document significant cross-country variation in how firms perceive Russia-related sanctions. Even after controlling for firm-level characteristics, cross-country differences remain for sentiments about sanctions and contexts in which sanctions are mentioned. We also examine the role of macroeconomic linkages in explaining these differences. We show that the Russia’s inward and outward FDI stocks and high levels of imports and exports with Russia only partially explain the cross-country variation, leaving a nontrivial share of variation unexplained.