Browsing by Subject "E13"

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  • Kilponen, Juha; Pisani, Massimiliano; Schmidt, Sebastian; Corbo, Vesna; Hledik, Tibor; Hollmayr, Josef; Hurtado, Samuel; Júlio, Paulo; Kulikov, Dmitry; Lemoine, Matthieu; Lozej, Matija; Lundvall, Henrik; Maria, José R.; Micallef, Brian; Papageorgiou, Dimitris; Rysanek, Jakub; Sideris, Dimitrios; Thomas, Carlos; de Walque, Gregory (2019)
    International Journal of Central Banking September 2019
    Also available as European Central Bank Working Paper No 1760 2015.
    This paper employs fifteen dynamic macroeconomic models maintained within the European System of Central Banks to assess the macroeconomic effects of a temporary fiscal tightening when the zero lower bound (ZLB) on monetary policy holds for two years. The main results are as follows. First, the ZLB does not greatly affect short-run multipliers in the case of a temporary fiscal tightening implemented in isolation by a generic euro-area (EA) country. Second, the ZLB unfolds quite sizable effects on the size of multipliers if the same fiscal tightening measure is simultaneously implemented in the whole EA. Third, public consumption multipliers are typically larger in absolute value than short-run tax (on labor income, capital income, and consumption) multipliers. Fourth, recessionary effects of the initial fiscal tightening are lower if distortionary taxes are reduced in the medium and long run.
  • Jokivuolle, Esa; Kilponen, Juha; Kuusi, Tero (2007)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 26/2007
    We suggest a complementary tool for financial stability analysis based on stochastic simulation of a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model (DSGE) of the macro economy. The paper relates to financial stability research in which financial aggregates crucial to financial stability are modelled as functions of macroeconomic variables. In these models, stress tests for eg banking sector loan losses can be generated by considering adverse scenarios of macro variables. A DSGE model provides a systematic way of generating coherent macro scenarios which can be given a rigorous economic interpretation. The approach is illustrated using a DSGE model of the Finnish economy and a simple model of Finnish banking sector loan losses. Keywords: DSGE models, financial stability, loan losses, stress testing JEL classification numbers: E13, E37, G21, G28
  • Kinnunen, Helvi (2008)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 21/2008
    Ilmestynyt myös VATT Publications 58/2011.
    This paper investigates public pension funding using a dynamic general equilibrium macroeconomic model (DSGE) that facilitates investigation of distortionary effects of fiscal and pension policy responses to ageing. The model is calibrated to the Finnish economy, which will encounter substantial ageing pressures in the near future. During the transition to an older population structure ageing costs can be substantially lowered by allowing public funds to smooth out the tax responses. Cutting down on pension prefunding at a time when the pace of ageing is at its peak reduces the necessary tax hikes and stimulates labour supply growth at the moment when the labour market is tightest. With smaller funding needs, ageing leads to a slower growth in labour costs, a better employment conditions and faster production growth. Keywords: ageing, general equilibrium, public finance, government funds JEL classification numbers: E13, H55, J11, J26
  • Gulan, Adam (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 22/2018
    Since the Global Financial Crisis, academic economists and policymakers have had to deal with uncomfortable questions about the quality of their models and the state of macroeconomics as a profession. This note offers a summary of this discussion, focusing on the Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) framework and its underpinnings. This class of models reflects both theoretical advances and perennial modeling challenges. While DSGE modeling developed in times of scarce micro data and limited computational resources, it has much room for improvement given progress along these dimensions and advances in other branches of economics. Key tasks on the to-do-list for model improvement include the modeling on the financial sector, departures from the representative agent and rationality, as well as clarification of the empirical relevance of the Lucas critique. The framework is likely to remain a major research and policy tool, although its limitations call for greater robustness, validation and open recognition of uncertainty in drawing real-life quantitative conclusions.
  • Kilponen, Juha; Kinnunen, Helvi; Ripatti, Antti (2006)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 28/2006
    This paper extends Gertler's (1999) tractable overlapping generations model with life-cycle features by allowing for distortionary taxation, demographic transition and stochastic variation in demographic structure.The model is then used to study demographic change in the small open economy of Finland. Simulations highlight the key role played by labour market responses to ageing.When the responses of labour supply, wages, and hence private consumption, to higher taxation are consistently accounted for, population ageing has clearly much larger effects on public finance, when compared to mechanical sustainability calculations.Stochastic simulations suggest that lengthening of working time has only a modest alleviating effect on the fiscal burden of ageing.This is due to the fact that stochastic variation in the length of working time has only a relatively small effect on the model's dependency ratio.Variation in life expectancy is clearly much more important. Key words: ageing, general equilibrium, public finance, demographic uncertainty JEL classification numbers: E13, H55, J11, J26
  • Vetlov, Igor (2004)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 13/2004
    This paper presents preliminary results of modelling the Lithuanian block of the ESCB Multi-Country Model, LT_MCM.The theoretical structure of the LT_MCM is in line with most current mainstream macro models, i.e. supply factors determine the long-run equilibrium, while output is demand determined in the short run. Starting with a brief overview of the common features and main building blocks of a typical MCM country model block, we report the preliminary results of estimation of the Lithuanian MCM block.To illustrate the main characteristics of the estimated model, some standard shocks are introduced in the model and the responses studied.Compared to other MCM country blocks, we find that the Lithuanian macro model is characterised by relatively large and rapid response to shocks.Model simulation reveals that, compared to domestic prices, GDP is more responsive to shocks in the short run, while investment on average is more volatile than private consumption.The latter findings are similar to those reported for other EU country macro models. JEL classification: E10, E13, C5 Keywords: Macro Model, Lithuania