Browsing by Subject "E41"

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  • Snellman, Heli; Virén, Matti (2006)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 21/2006
    Published in Applied Financial Economics, Volume 19, Number 10, 2009: 841-851
    This paper deals with the issue of how the market structure in banking affects the choice of means of payment.In particular, the demand for cash is analysed from this point of view.The analysis is based on a simple spatial transactions model in which the banks' optimization problem is solved.The solution quite clearly shows that monopoly banks have an incentive to restrict the number of ATMs to a minimum.In general, the number of ATMs depends on competitiveness in the banking sector.The predictions of the theoretical analysis are tested using panel data from 20 OECD countries for the period 1988-2003.Empirical analysis reveals that there is a strong and robust relationship between the number of ATM networks and the number of ATMs (in relation to population).It also reveals that the demand for cash depends both on the number of ATMs and ATM networks and on the popularity of other means of payment.Thus, the use of cash can be fairly well explained in a transaction demand framework, assuming proper controls for market structure and technical environment. Key words: automated teller machine, demand for cash, banking, means of payment JEL classification numbers: E41, E51
  • Snellman, Heli (2006)
    Suomen Pankki. E 38
    This study discusses the effects of the Automated Teller Machine (ATM) network market structure on the availability of cash withdrawal ATM services and cash usage.The aim and novelty of the study is to construct the ATM equation.The study also contributes to the earlier discussion on the effects of ATMs on cash usage.The monopolisation of ATM network market structure and its effects on the number of ATMs and on cash in circulation are analysed both theoretically and empirically.The unique annual data set on 20 countries used in the estimations has been combined from various data sources.The observation period is 1988-2003, but the data on some countries are available only for a shorter period.Based on our theoretical discussion, as well as the estimation results, monopolisation of the ATM network market structure is associated with a smaller number of ATMs.Furthermore, the influence of the number of ATMs on cash in circulation is ambiguous. Key words: ATM, ATM network, monopolisation, demand for cash JEL classification: C33, E41, G2, C11
  • Arango, Carlos; Bouhdaoui, Yassine; Bounie, David; Eschelbach, Martina; Hernandez, Lola (2015)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 22/2015
    Despite various payment innovations, today, cash is still heavily used to pay for low-value purchases. This paper proposes a simulation model based on two optimal cash management and payment policies in the payments economics literature to explain cash usage. First, cash is preferred to other payment instruments whenever consumers have enough balances at hand. Second, it is optimal for consumers to hold a stock of cash for precautionary reasons. Exploiting survey payment diaries from Canada, France, Germany and the Netherlands, the results of the simulations show that both optimal policies are well suited to understand the high shares of low-value cash payments in Canada, France and Germany. Yet, they do not perform as well in the case of the Netherlands, overestimating the share of low-value cash payments. We discuss how the differences in payment markets across countries may explain the limitations of the two optimal policies.
  • Dorbec, Anna (2005)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 15/2005
    Published in Growth Resumption in the CIS Countries, ed. by Oleh Havrylyshyn and Lucio Vinhas de Souza, Springer (2006), pp. 40-72
    The analysis of external economic relations of Russia reveals a paradox: while Europe is the main trade and direct investment partner of Russia, this is far from being the case concerning its currency s role in Russia's financial activities.The dollar is much preferred by economic agents for financial operations.This paper proposes a disaggregated approach to this issue by separating the means of exchange and store of value components of the use of substitution currencies.The influence of three main factors (inertial component, real trade relations and exchange rate fluctuations) on the relative demand for the euro by Russian economic agents is tested for the period 1999-2004.Finally we suggest a theoretical interpretation of the results based on the conventions theory approach. Keywords: dollarisation, euroisation, transition, Russia, currency substitution, asset substitution, network externalities, hysteresis, conventions JEL classification: E52, E41, F31, F41,G20
  • Mehrotra, Aaron (2006)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 10/2006
    Published in International Advances in Economic Research, vol. 14(1), 2008, pages 36-47
    We examine money demand in the Chinese economy during a period characterized by significant disinflation and outright deflation, coupled with strong output growth.Our study establishes a stable money demand system for broad money M2.Inflation affects the adjustment of the system towards equilibrium, and shocks to broad money are found to lead to higher inflation in the context of an impulse response analysis.The results provide support for the PBoC's policy of specifying intermediate targets for money growth. Importantly, our results suggest that movements in the nominal effective exchange rate should be taken into account in a successful implementation of such a policy. Keywords: Money demand; Deflation; China JEL Classification: E31, E41
  • Krupkina, Anna; Ponomarenko, Alexey (2015)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 32/2015
    We apply empirical modelling set-ups developed to capture the hysteresis effect in the data on deposit dollarization in a cross-section of emerging market economies. Specifically, we estimate a nonlinear relationship that determines two equilibrium levels of deposit dollarization depending on the current value of dollarization and previous episodes of sharp depreciation of the national currency over the past five years. When exchange rates are stable, convergence to a higher equilibrium level of dollarization begins when the 45–50% thresh-old of deposit dollarization is exceeded. We estimate the model for short-run dynamics of dollarization and find that the speed of convergence to the higher equilibrium implies quarterly increases of 1.2–3 percentage points in the ratio of foreign currency deposits to total deposits.
  • Ripatti, Antti (1997)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 17/1997
    In order to study the role of money in an inflation targeting regime for monetary policy, we compare the interest rate and money as monetary policy instruments.Our dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model combines the money-in-the-utility-function approach with sticky prices.We allow for time-varying preferences for real money balances, ie velocity shocks, and stochastic aggregate costs in production, ie 'technology shocks'.We show that conditioning the interest rate on the expected future cost change can be used to achieve constant inflation or constant inflation expectations.The assumed adjustment costs in 'money demand' lead to an equilibrium in which inflation can be controlled by money growth without information on the current state of the economy. Finally, we discuss the tradeoff between money and the interest rate as a monetary policy instrument.The result depends on the parameter stability of the cost change process relative to that of the 'money demand' function. Keywords: monetary transmission mechanism, money-in-the-utility-function model, sticky prices, technology shock, monetary policy strategy.JEL classification: E31, E41, E52
  • Sarajevs, Vadims (1999)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 7/1999
    Published in Ekonomia vol 4, no 2 (2000), pp. 192-219
    An integrated stochastic macroeconomic model of transition economy at the early stage of reforms with optimising representative risk averse agents is constructed.The equilibrium growth rate of the economy, real asset returns, domestic money demand, and expected inflation rate are determined as functions of the exogenous risks in the economy.The main issue addressed are: domestic money demand, currency substitution ratio, expected rate of inflation, real asset returns, the equilibrium growth rate of the economy as well as government ability to control these variables.Analysis of the model finds that the equilibrium growth rate of the economy is not independent on the monetary and fiscal policies but can be affected by the government through its ability to fix the real cost of capital for the firm, expenditure and monetary policy parameters. JEL Classification Numbers: D80, D90, E41, E44, E52, F41, O11, O23
  • Korhonen, Iikka; Mehrotra, Aaron (2007)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 14/2007
    Published in Emerging Markets Finance and Trade 46. (2), 2010, 5-19
    Estimating money demand functions for Russia following the 1998 crisis, we find a stable money demand relationship when augmented by a deterministic trend signifying falling velocity. As predicted by theory, higher income boosts demand for real rouble balances and the income elasticity of money is close to unity. Inflation affects the adjustment towards equilibrium, while broad money shocks lead to higher inflation. We also show that exchange rate fluctuations have a considerable influence on Russian money demand. The results indicate that Russian monetary authorities have been correct in using the money stock as an information variable and that the strong influence of exchange rate on money demand is likely to continue despite de-dollarisation of the Russian economy.
  • Krupkina, Anna; Ponomarenko, Alexey (2013)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 31/2013
    We estimate money demand models for certain monetary aggregates across different institutional sectors (a novelty for the Russian case). Our results comprise a collection of money demand equations that include different combinations of explanatory variables. Comparing the validity of these models on the basis of statistical criteria is virtually implausible. Therefore we suggest the simultaneous employment of a whole set of such models and illustrate the approach by presenting the distribution of monetary overhangs calculated on the basis of the estimated models. Keywords: monetary aggregates, money demand, households, non-financial corporations JEL classification: E41, C22, D14, D22.
  • Kauko, Karlo (2005)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 14/2005
    This paper presents a model on the demand for money market funds (MMFs).These funds are a very close substitute for M1 deposits, except that MMFs do not satisfy immediate transaction requirements. The demand for MMFs strengthens when the intended volume of transactions is low.A high interest rate level makes it expensive to hold M1 deposits.High interest rate volatility, paradoxically, increases the risk of holding M1 deposits stronger than the risk of holding MMFs.The results are largely corroborated by Finnish data. Key words: money market mutual funds, money demand JEL classification numbers: G23, G29, E41