Browsing by Author "Eerola, Essi"

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  • Eerola, Essi (2016)
    Euro & talous 3/2016
    Asuntojen hinnat ovat viimeisen 10 vuoden aikana nousseet pääkaupunkiseudulla nopeammin kuin muissa suurissa suomalaisissa kaupungeissa. Hintaerojen kasvu voi johtua siitä, että pääkaupunkiseudusta on tullut entistä houkuttelevampi muihin suuriin kaupunkeihin verrattuna. Toisaalta samaan aikaan asuntolainakorkojen aleneminen on pienentänyt omistusasujan asumiskustannuksia. Myös tämä voi selittää, miksi asuntojen hinnat ovat nousseet siellä, missä asuntojen tarjonta ei ole kasvanut vastaavasti.
  • Eerola, Essi (2016)
    Euro & talous. Blogi
    Yhdysvalloista vuonna 2008 alkaneen finanssikriisin syitä ja seurauksia on analysoitu viime vuosina eri kanteilta.
  • Eerola, Essi (2016)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 3/2016
    House prices have in the past 10 years risen in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area faster than in the other large Finnish cities. The widening price gap may reflect the increasing attractiveness of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area relative to the other major cities. At the same time, the decline in housing loan interest rates has reduced the user cost of owner-occupied housing. This may also explain why house prices have risen in areas where the supply of housing has not grown correspondingly.
  • Eerola, Essi (2016)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 18/2016
    The global financial crisis has led to increased attention on the relationship of household indebtedness and systemic risks. As a result, macroprudential measures aimed at reducing the risks have been introduced in many countries. This note reviews the recent empirical literature on these measures focusing on the housing market. Thus far, the literature mostly consists of cross-country studies using aggregate data and looking at a large set of different measures. The studies typically report associations between the measures and outcome variables of interest (often credit growth and house price appreciation), but do not assess the causal effects of the different measures or the underlying mechanisms. Exploiting household level data together with policy reforms, should be a useful step forward in understanding the effects of the measures and uncovering the mechanisms through which they operate. Focusing on micro-data would also allow studying the distributional effects of the measures. Understanding the distributional effects is important in its own right, but also because the ultimate goals of the macroprudential policies are related not only to the aggregate level of credit but also to the distribution of leverage.
  • Eerola, Essi; Määttänen, Niku (2015)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 20/2015
    ​We study the interaction of matching and credit frictions in the housing market. In the model, risk-averse households may save or borrow in order to smooth consumption over time and finance owner housing. Prospective sellers and buyers meet randomly and bargain over the price. We analyze how borrowing constraints influence house price determination in the presence of matching frictions. We also show that credit frictions greatly magnify the effects of matching frictions. For instance, in the presence of matching frictions, a moderate tightening of the borrowing constraint increases idiosyncratic price dispersion and the average time-on-the-market substantially.
  • Eerola, Essi; Määttänen, Niku (2008)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 8/2008
    We study how a household borrowing constraint the the form of a down payment requirement affects house price dynamics in an OLG model with standard preferences. We find that in certain situations the borrowing constraint shapes house price dynamics substantially. The importance of the constraint depends very much on whether house price changes are driven by interest rate or aggregate income shocks. Moreover, because of the borrowing constraint, house price dynamics display substantial asymmetries between large positive and large negative income shocks. These results are related to the fact that the share of borrowing-constrained households is different following different shocks. Keywords: house prices, dynamics, borrowing constraints, down payment constraint JEL classification numbers: E21, R21
  • Eerola, Essi; Määttänen, Niku (2005)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 10/2005
    In a dynamic setting, housing is both an asset and a consumption good.But should it be taxed like other forms of consumption or like other forms of saving?We consider the optimal taxation of the imputed rent from owner housing within a version of the neoclassical growth model.We find that the optimal tax rate on the imputed rent is quite sensitive to the constraints imposed on the other available tax rates.In general, it is not optimal to tax the imputed rent at the same rate as the business capital income. Key words: housing, capital taxation, optimal taxation JEL Classification numbers: H21, E21
  • Eerola, Essi; Saarimaa, Tuukka (2015)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 30/2015
    ​This paper studies how much public housing generates rent savings for the tenants, how these savings are distributed among the tenants, and whether the tenants reside in better quality neighborhoods than similar low-income private rental tenants. Our rent savings estimates are based on a hedonic regression and detailed data on the private and public rental housing units from the city of Helsinki. We estimate that the total subsidy to public housing tenants is considerable and comparable in size to the housing allowance, the main tenant-based housing program. We also find that the subsidy is less targeted towards low-income households than the housing allowance. Regarding neighborhood quality, we find that public housing tenants live in lower quality neighborhoods than similar households living in private rental housing. This result suggests that public housing is not better than the housing allowance in delivering better neighborhood quality to low-income households.