Browsing by Subject "Expectations"

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  • Gibbs, Christopher G.; McClung, Nigel (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 19/2019
    We provide suffcient conditions for when a rational expectations structural model predicts bounded responses of endogenous variables to forward guidance announcements. The conditions coincide with a special case of the well-known (E)xpectation-stability conditions that govern when agents can learn a Rational Expectations Equilibrium. Importantly, we show that the conditions are distinct from the determinacy conditions. We show how the conditions are useful for diagnosing the features of a model that contribute to the Forward Guidance Puzzle and reveal how to construct well-behaved forward guidance predictions in standard medium-scale DSGE models.
  • Oinonen, Sami; Virén, Matti (2021)
    Economia Internazionale / International Economics 2
    Published in BoF DP 24/2018 http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:bof-201811202136
    In this paper, we examine how professional forecasters’ expectations and expectation uncertainty have reacted to the ECB’s interest rate and non-conventional monetary policy decisions during the period 1999-2017. The analysis makes use of a conventional intervention dummy -type set up. The results indicate that expectations have been sensitive to policy actions, but forecasters’ reactions are quite different and, as a rule, do not seem to follow the predictions of a standard New Keynesian model. Also the relationship between inflation and output forecasts does not seem to follow a Phillips curve relationship. Rather, the forecasters interpret policy actions as signals of ECB’s inside information. Thus, for instance, cuts in policy rates are interpreted as the CB’s information of worse than generally assumed cyclical situation rather than the eventual positive effects of lower interest rates. The magnitude of expectation effects depends much of the way in which other macro variables are controlled. Even so the basic feature of these effects remain the same.
  • Oinonen, Sami; Paloviita, Maritta; Viren, Matti (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 24/2018
    Published in Economia Internazionale / International Economics 2 ; 2021.
    In this paper, we examine how professional forecasters’ expectations and expectation uncertainty have reacted to the ECB’s interest rate decisions and non-conventional monetary policy measures during the period 1999-2017. The analysis makes use of a conventional dif-in-dif type set up with different time series tools. The results indicate that expectations have been sensitive to policy actions, but all forecasters’ reactions do not seem to follow the basic predictions of a standard New Keynesian model. Also the relationship between inflation and output forecasts does not seem to follow a Phillips curve type relationship. Moreover, short- and long term reactions to policy are often weakly related and of different sign. Interestingly, subjective forecast uncertainty measures are very sensitive to policy measures. Thus, there seems to be much heterogeneity in forecasters’ reactions to most policy decisions. All uncertainty measures, including long-term inflation uncertainty, have increased over time. This has to be taken into account when considering the anchoring of inflation expectations to the inflation target.
  • Mitra, Kaushik; Evans, George W.; Honkapohja, Seppo (2019)
    Macroeconomic Dynamics 1
    Published in Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 5/2012 http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:bof-20140807316
    Using the standard real business cycle model with lump-sum taxes, we analyze the impact of fiscal policy when agents form expectations using adaptive learning rather than rational expectations (RE). The output multipliers for government purchases are significantly higher under learning, and fall within empirical bounds reported in the literature, which is in sharp contrast to the implausibly low values under RE. Positive effects of fiscal policy are demonstrated during times of economic stress like the recent Great Recession. Finally, it is shown how learning can lead to consumption and investment dynamics empirically documented during some episodes of “fiscal consolidations.”