Browsing by Subject "G23"

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  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Wu, Deming (2016)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 9/2016
    Do banks use credit default swap hedging to substitute for loan sales? By tracking banks’ lending exposures and CDS positions on individual firms, we find that banks use CDS hedging to complement rather than to substitute for loan sales. Consequently, bank loan sales are higher for firms that are actively traded in the CDS market. In addition, we find evidence that suggests that banks sell CDS protection as credit enhancements to facilitate loan sales. This study employs identification strategies similar to the “twin study” design to separate the effects of borrower-side and lender-side factors, and to minimize the omitted-variables bias.
  • Francis, Bill B.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Shen, Yinjie (Victor); Wu, Qiang (2021)
    Journal of Financial Economics 1 ; July
    Using a comprehensive US hedge fund activism dataset from 2003 to 2018, we find that activist hedge funds are about 52% more likely to target firms with female CEOs compared to firms with male CEOs. We find that firm fundamentals, the existence of a “glass cliff,” gender discrimination bias, and hedge fund activists’ inherent characteristics do not explain the observed gender effect. We also find that the transformational leadership style of female CEOs is a plausible explanation for this gender effect: instead of being self-defensive, female CEOs are more likely to communicate and cooperate with hedge fund activists to achieve intervention goals. Finally, we find that female-led targets experience greater increases in market and operational performance subsequent to hedge fund targeting.
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Wu, Deming (2016)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 10/2016
    ​We test five hypotheses on whether banks use CDS to hedge corporate loans, provide credit enhancements, obtain regulatory capital relief, and exploit banking relationship and private information. Linking large banks’ CDS positions and syndicated lending on individual firms, we observe strong evidence for the credit enhancement and regulatory capital relief hypotheses, but mixed evidence for the hedging, banking relationship, and private information hypotheses. Banks buy and sell more CDS on their borrowers, but their net CDS positions and lending status are largely unrelated. We find no evidence of bank using CDS to exploit private information.
  • Järvenpää, Maija; Paavola, Aleksi (2021)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 2/2021
    An asset is money-like if investors have no incentives to acquire costly private information on the underlying collateral. However, privately provided money-like assets—like prime money market fund (MMF) shares—are prone to runs if investors suddenly start to question the value of the collateral. Therefore, for risky assets, lack of money-likeness is a necessary condition for lack of run incentives. But is it a sufficient one? This paper studies the effect of the U.S. money market fund reform of 2014–2016 on investor monitoring, money-likeness and stability of institutional prime MMFs. Using the number of distinct IP addresses accessing MMFs’ regulatory reports as a proxy for investor monitoring, we find that the reform increased monitoring and thus decreased money-likeness of institutional prime funds. However, we also show that after the reform, institutional prime funds that are more likely to impose the newly introduced redemption restrictions are more monitored, suggesting that investors may monitor in order to avoid being hit by the restrictions. Overall, our results indicate that increased monitoring, or decreased money-likeness, has not made institutional prime MMFs run-free, and it may have actually created a new source of fragility for MMFs.
  • Funke, Michael; Li, Xiang; Tsang, Andrew (2019)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 23/2019
    This paper studies monetary policy transmission in China’s peer-to-peer lending market. Using spectral measures of causality, we explore the impacts of Chinese monetary policy shocks on China’s P2P market interest rates and lending amounts. The estimation results indicate significant spectral Granger causality from monetary policy surprises to P2P lending rates for borrowers, but not the reverse. Unlike the lending channel for traditional banks, monetary policy shocks do not Granger-cause the credit amount in the P2P lending market.
  • Buchanan, Bonnie G. (2016)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 31/2016
    Published in Journal of Business Ethics, October 2016, Volume 138, Issue 3: 559–577
    Securitization is considered to be one of the biggest financial innovations of the last century. It is also regarded as both a catalyst and solution to the 2008 financial crisis. Once a popular method of financing the mortgage and consumer credit markets, aspects of the global securitization market are now struggling to revive. In this paper I discuss the role that ethics played in securitization prior to the 2008 financial crisis and find that it is not an obvious story of moral failures, but rather that it lies in more subtle elements of the financial system. The ethics uncertainty role in the securitization story is one of flawed incentives and the shifting of responsibility for handling risk. The role of securitization and the ethics of risk transfer have rarely been discussed explicitly in the literature. The historical origins of securitization and lessons learned from previous flawed uses of the process are also provided. I also detail the various global institutional reform proposals that have taken place. Moving forward, it is crucial to understand the causes, consequences and ethical implications of securitization in the financial crisis so as to help individuals and managers better assess risk, align incentives and design appropriate policy responses.
  • Kauko, Karlo (2005)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 14/2005
    This paper presents a model on the demand for money market funds (MMFs).These funds are a very close substitute for M1 deposits, except that MMFs do not satisfy immediate transaction requirements. The demand for MMFs strengthens when the intended volume of transactions is low.A high interest rate level makes it expensive to hold M1 deposits.High interest rate volatility, paradoxically, increases the risk of holding M1 deposits stronger than the risk of holding MMFs.The results are largely corroborated by Finnish data. Key words: money market mutual funds, money demand JEL classification numbers: G23, G29, E41
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Kim, Incheol; Teng, Haimeng; Wu, Qiang (2016)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 26/2016
    This study examines whether foreign institutional investors (FIIs) help explain variation in corporate tax avoidance and whether mechanisms such as tax morality, investment horizon, and corporate governance underlie the relation between FIIs and tax avoidance. We find robust evidence that FIIs are negatively associated with corporate tax avoidance. Moreover, this negative association is dominated by FIIs from countries with high tax morality, FIIs with long-term investment horizons, and FIIs from countries with high corporate governance quality. We conclude that FIIs play an active role in shaping corporate tax avoidance policy.
  • He, Qing; Li, Xiaoyang (2020)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 27/2020
    We investigate the influence of financial and political factors on peer-to-peer (P2P) platform failures in China’s online lending market. Using a competing risk model for platform survival, we show that large platforms, platforms with listed firms as large shareholders, and platforms with better information disclosure were less likely to go bankrupt or run off (platform owners abscond with investor funds). More importantly, failing platforms were much less likely to run off in advance of major political events, but more likely to declare bankruptcy or run off after such events. These effects are more pronounced for politically connected platforms, platforms operating in provinces where local officials have close ties with central government, and in provinces with better local financial conditions. Our study highlights the role of political incentives on government regulatory intervention in platform failures.
  • Francis, Bill B.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Zhu Yun (2013)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 27/2013
    This paper provides original evidence from institutional investors that political uncertainty during presidential elections greatly affects investment. Using U.S. institutional ownership data from 1981 to 2010, we find that institutions significantly reduce their holdings of common stock by 0.76 to 2.1 percentage points during election years. More specifically, institutions tend to sell large proportions of their positions when Republicans win presidential elections and then keep their positions at below-average levels through the first year of the new administration. Conversely, when Democrats win presidential elections, institutions tend to keep their positions at above-average levels for the first year of the new administration. The difference in ownership rises to 2.4% by the end of the first year of new administration. Changes in institutional ownership in election years are sensitive to the uncertainty of the outcome. Our results also show that institutions benefit from these holding strategies during the pre-election periods. Keywords: political uncertainty, presidential election, institutional investor, investment JEL Classification: G23 (Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors), G28 (Government Policy and Regulation), P16 (Political Economy)
  • Huang, Yiping; Li, Xiang; Wang, Chu (2019)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 16/2019
    This paper uses loan application-level data from a peer-to-peer lending platform to study the risk-taking channel of monetary policy. By employing a direct ex-ante measure of risk-taking and estimating the simultaneous equations of loan approval and loan amount, we are the first to provide quantitative evidence of the impact of monetary policy on the risk-taking of nonbank financial institution. We find that the search-for-yield is the main workhorse of the risk-taking effect, while we do not observe consistent findings of risk-shifting from the liquidity change. Monetary policy easing is associated with a higher probability of granting loans to risky borrowers and a greater riskiness of credit allocation, but these changes do not necessarily relate to a larger loan amount on average.
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; O'Brien, Jonathan; Ye, Pengfei (2013)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 23/2013
    This study investigates whether institutional bond blockholders (i.e., bond funds that hold more than 5% of a firm's outstanding bonds) impede firm innovative activities, and if they do, through which channels. We find that long-term bond blockholders do not discourage firms from conducting innovative activities. Short-term bond blockholders, however, significantly reduce both firm investments in R&D and the innovative quality of these investments. Furthermore, their negative impact is stronger than the negative impact of short-term stockholders. Our results cannot be fully explained by short-term bondholders' a priori investment preferences and are robust to possible endogeneity concerns. Overall, they suggest that the option of the 'Wall Street walk' allows bondholders to exert considerable influence on firms' risk-taking decisions. JEL Classification: G23, G31 Keywords: Bondholder; Innovation; Investment Horizon; Wall Street Walk