Browsing by Subject "G24"

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  • Verona, Fabio; Martins, Manuel M. F.; Drumond, Inês (2013)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 4/2013
    Published in International Journal of Central Banking, Volume 9, Number 3, September 2013, Pages 73-117 ; http://www.ijcb.org/journal/ijcb13q3a3.htm
    Motivated by the U.S. events of the 2000s, we address whether a too low for too long interest rate policy may generate a boom-bust cycle. We simulate anticipated and unanticipated monetary policies in state-of-the-art DSGE models and in a model with bond financing via a shadow banking system, in which the bond spread is calibrated for normal and optimistic times. Our results suggest that the U.S. boom-bust was caused by the combination of (i) interest rates that were too low for too long, (ii) excessive optimism and (iii) a failure of agents to anticipate the extent of the abnormally favourable conditions. Keywords: DSGE model, shadow banking system, too low for too long, boom-bust JEL codes: E32, E44, E52, G24
  • Tölö, Eero; Jokivuolle, Esa; Virén, Matti (2015)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 29/2015
    Published in Journal of Financial Services Research 2021 ; 60 ; 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10693-021-00351-2
    We investigate how European banks’ overnight borrowing costs depend on bank size. We use the Eurosystem’s proprietary interbank daily loan data on euro-denominated transactions from 2008-2014. We find that large banks have had a clear borrowing cost advantage over small banks and that this premium increases progressively with the size of the bank. This result is robust with respect to subsamples, subperiods, time aggregation, and control variables such as Tier 1 capital ratio and rating. During episodes of financial stress, the size advantage becomes several times larger. However, we also find evidence that the new recovery and resolution framework for banks may have slightly reduced the borrowing cost advantage of larger banks in Europe.
  • Goodell, John W.; Goyal, Abhinav; Hasan, Iftekhar (2020)
    Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money January
    Previous research finds market financing is favored over relationship financing in environments of better governance, since the transaction costs to investors of vetting asymmetric information are thereby reduced. For industries supplying public goods, for-profits rely on market financing, while nonprofits rely on relationships with donors. This suggests that for-profits will be more inclined than nonprofits to improve financial transparency. We examine the impact of for-profit versus nonprofit status on the financial transparency of firms engaged with supplying public goods. There are relatively few industries that have large number of both for-profit and nonprofit firms across countries. However, the microfinance industry provides the opportunity of a large number of both for-profit and nonprofit firms in relatively equal numbers, across a wide array of countries. Consistent with our prediction, we find that financial transparency is positively associated with a for-profit status. Results will be of broad interest both to scholars interested in the roles of transparency and transaction costs on market versus relational financing as well as to policy makers interested in the impact of for-profit on the supply of public goods, and on the microfinance industry in particular.
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Khurshed, Arif; Mohamed, Abdulkadir; Wang, Fan (2018)
    Journal of Corporate Finance April 2018
    This paper examines the benefits to venture capital firms of their officers holding directorships in mature public companies in terms of fundraising and investment performance. Our empirical results show that venture capital firms raise more funds, set higher fund-raising targets, and are more likely to successfully exit their investments post-appointment of their officers to boards of directors of S&P 1500 companies. Directorship status in mature public firms provides venture capital firms with enhanced networks, visibility, and credibility, all of which facilitate their fundraising activities. In addition, the knowledge, expertise, and experience acquired through holding directorships in mature public firms are beneficial for their portfolio companies, as measured by the likelihood of successful exits.
  • Ikonen, Pasi (2017)
    Bank of Finland. Scientific monographs. E 51
    This thesis applies several econometric methods to a selection of country panels to study how growth is influenced by financial development and government debt. The first part presents the thesis discussion, including a synthesis on financial development, government debt, money supply, and economic growth. The second part deepens the discussion with three stand-alone essays. The first essay models how financial development affects growth through utilization of technological innovation. Based on explicit modeling of the innovation channel of finance, the results show a significant and positive sign for the interaction term between the measure of a country’s own innovation and financial development in the most important specifications. This suggests that the innovation channel of finance is likely to be positively relevant to growth. The second essay examines effects of venture capital investment on economic growth in a similar framework. The findings demonstrate that the interaction of venture capital with innovation has a positive and statistically significant coefficient. Further, the joint impact related to venture capital and its interactions is positive in most specifications, suggesting that venture capital is probably a relevant factor for growth. The third essay delves deeply in the effects of general government debt and general government external debt on growth of real GDP. It explores the long-standing endogeneity problem, includes other relevant debt concepts besides government total debt, revisits the issue whether there are threshold values for the government debt ratio, examines the effect of debt on GDP components and structure, uses timely and extensive datasets and extensive robustness analysis, and runs meta-regressions of the results of this and a many of other studies. Even with correction for endogeneity, the study finds modest evidence of a negative and significant growth impact for government debt. The evidence is not robust over all samples and specifications. The final essay also reports evidence of a negative and significant effect of government external debt in the sample of developed economies. The findings overall comport with those of recent papers that conclude that there is no universal threshold value for a government debt ratio that would hold across all countries. Further, government debt appears to decrease the private-investment-to-GDP ratio, but increases the GDP ratio for household consumption. The meta-regression analysis shows that the study’s results on how specification features affect the estimate of the government debt coefficient are broadly in line with those of other studies.
  • Kanniainen, Vesa; Leppämäki, Mikko (2002)
    Bank of Finland. Discussion papers 5/2002
    The paper shows that uninformed finance gives rise to excessive entry, both in human-capital-intensive and in conventional industries when the financial institutions cannot identify the entrepreneurial talent.Introduction of informed capital (eg venture capital finance) with superior screening ability results in an institutional equilibrium with efficiency gains in human-capital industries.Contrary to received wisdom, the institutional equilibrium with informed capital is characterised by more limited entry to an industry, which requires highly talented human capital. Unexpectedly, the total welfare effect is ambiguous, as the allocation of non-informed capital is now less efficient in the conventional industry.The institutional equilibrium is shaped by investors' risk preferences, costs of establishing uninformed and informed capital, and the initial distribution ot talent in the economy. Key words: allocation of talent, asymmetric information, financial institutions, venture capital, institutional equilibrium JEL classification numbers: D82, G2, G24
  • Kerr, William R.; Nanda, Ramana (2015)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 28/2015
    We review the recent literature on the financing of innovation, inclusive of large companies and new startups. This research strand has been very active over the past five years, generating important new findings, questioning some long-held beliefs, and creating its own puzzles. Our review outlines the growing body of work that documents a role for debt financing related to innovation. We highlight the new literature on learning and experimentation across multi-stage innovation projects and how this impacts optimal financing design. We further highlight the strong interaction between financing choices for innovation and changing external conditions, especially reduced experimentation costs.
  • Ambrocio, Gene; Hasan, Iftekhar (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 13/2019
    Do closer political ties with a global superpower improve sovereign borrowing conditions? We use data on voting at the United Nations General Assembly along with foreign aid flows to construct an index of political ties and find evidence that suggests closer political ties leads to both better sovereign credit ratings and lower yields on sovereign bonds. We use heads-of-state official visits and coalition forces troop contributions as exogenous instruments to further strengthen the findings.
  • Tölö, Eero; Jokivuolle, Esa; Viren, Matti (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 22/2019
    Using the Eurosystem’s proprietary interbank loan data from more than one thousand banks, practically all major banks in Europe for 2008-2016, we show that larger European banks have had a lower cost of overnight borrowing than smaller banks. The size premium remains significant after controlling for time, relationship lending, competitive environment of lenders, and bank risk characteristics but has decreased over time in countries that were stricken by the Sovereign Debt Crisis. Further, the ultra-short maturity of the overnight loans and the daily frequency at which we measure them provide for an ideal setting to use difference-in-differences analysis to study the potential effect of the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (BRRD) on the size premium in overnight rates and to avoid possible simultaneity problems. However, we find that changes in the size premium cannot be related to the implementation dates of the BRRD in different member countries.
  • Tölö, Eero; Jokivuolle, Esa; Virén, Matti (2021)
    Journal of Financial Services Research 1
    Published in BoF DP 29/2015 http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:bof-201512151482
    Using the Eurosystem’s proprietary interbank loan data from June 2008–June 2020, we show that larger European banks have had a lower cost of overnight borrowing than smaller banks. The size premium remains significant after controlling for a large set of other factors but has decreased over time, especially in countries that were stricken by the Sovereign Debt Crisis. A difference-in-differences analysis suggests that the decline in the size premium is related to the actual bail-in events, not to the implementation dates of the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive as such. This finding is robust to controlling for the effect of the ECB’s long-term refinancing operations. Overall, the results suggest that the regulatory move towards bail-in rather than bailout policies to deal with financially distressed banks has reduced the too-big-to-fail expectations concerning large banks.
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Song, Liang; Wachtel, Paul (2013)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 20/2013
    Published in Journal of Comparative Economics, Volume 42, Issue 1, February 2014, Pages 92–108
    Better developed legal and political institutions result in greater availability of reliable firm-specific information. When stock prices reflect more firm-specific information there will be less stock price synchronicity. This paper traces the experience of China, an economy undergoing dramatic institutional change in the last 20 years with rich variation in experiences across provinces. We show that stock price synchronicity is lower when there is institutional development in terms of property rights protection and rule of law. Further-more, we investigate the influence of political pluralism on synchronicity. A more pluralistic regime reduces uncertainty and opaqueness regarding government interventions and therefore increases the value of firm-specific information that reduces synchronicity. JEL Classification Numbers: G14; G15; G24; G38 Keywords: Institutions; China; stock price synchronicity
  • Hyytinen, Ari; Takalo, Tuomas (2003)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 17/2003
    Published in International Review Of Law And Economics, 28 , pp. 113-122
    We study the effects of investor protection on the availability of external finance, entrepreneurship, and creation of new firms in an equilibrium search model of private capital markets.In addition to search frictions, we examine contract frictions, specifically interim and ex post moral hazard problems stemming from entrepreneurs' possibilities to expropriate financiers.In our model, the government chooses the level of investor protection that determines the transferability of match surplus between entrepreneurs and financiers.The results indicate that anything that increases (decreases) entrepreneurship also increases (decreases) the creation of start-ups.The effect of investor protection on the creation of start-ups thus hinges on the relative importance of various search and contract frictions.Only when investor protection has a sufficiently large impact on the ex post moral hazard problem relative to the interim moral hazard does strengthening investor protection enhance start-up creation.We also find that search frictions dilute the beneficial effect of investor protection and that contract frictions modify the standard Hosios condition for efficiency. Key words: investor protection, start-up financing, private equity market, entrepreneurship, corporate finance JEL classification numbers: E50, G21, G24
  • Bozkaya, Ant; Kerr, William R. (2013)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 30/2013
    Published in Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, Volume 23, Issue 4, 1 December 2014: 776-810
    European nations substitute between employment protection regulations and labor market expenditures (e.g., unemployment insurance benefits) for providing worker insurance. Employment regulations more directly tax firms making frequent labor adjustments than other labor market insurance mechanisms. Venture capital investors are especially sensitive to these labor adjustment costs. Nations favoring labor market expenditures as the mechanism for providing worker insurance developed stronger venture capital markets over 1990-2008, especially in high volatility sectors. In this context, policy mechanisms are more important than the overall level of worker insurance. JEL Classification: G24, J21, J65, L26, M13, O31, O32, O52. Key Words: employment protection regulations, dismissal costs, unemployment insurance benefits, private equity, venture capital, entrepreneurship.
  • Hyytinen, Ari; Kuosa, Iikka; Takalo, Tuomas (2002)
    Bank of Finland. Discussion papers 8/2002
    Published in European Journal of Law and Economics, 16, 2003: 59-89
    Although it is widely acknowledged that the benefits of corporate governance reform could be substantial, systematic evidence on such reforms is scant.We both document and evaluate a contemporary corporate governance reform by constructing 18 measures of shareholder and creditor protection for Finland for the period 1980-2000.The measures reveal that shareholder protection has been strengthened whereas creditor protection has been weakened.We also demonstrate how the reform is consistent with a reorganisation of the Finnish financial market in which a bank-centred financial system shifted from relationship-based debt finance towards increasing dominance by the stock market.We find evidence that the development of shareholder protection has been a driver of the reorganisation, whereas the changes in creditor protection have mirrored market developments. Key words: corporate finance, financial intermediation, corporate governance JEL classification numbers: E50, G2 1, G24, G32
  • Niskanen, Mikko (2002)
    Bank of Finland. Discussion papers 17/2002
    We study the effects of investor protection on the availability of external finance, entrepreneurship, and creation of new firms in an equilibrium search model of private capital markets.In addition to search frictions, we examine contract frictions, specifically interim and ex post moral hazard problems stemming from entrepreneurs' possibilities to expropriate financiers.In our model, the government chooses the level of investor protection that determines the transferability of match surplus between entrepreneurs and financiers.The results indicate that anything that increases (decreases) entrepreneurship also increases (decreases) the creation of start-ups.The effect of investor protection on the creation of start-ups thus hinges on the relative importance of various search and contract frictions.Only when investor protection has a sufficiently large impact on the ex post moral hazard problem relative to the interim moral hazard does strengthening investor protection enhance start-up creation.We also find that search frictions dilute the beneficial effect of investor protection and that contract frictions modify the standard Hosios condition for efficiency. Key words: investor protection, start-up financing, private equity market, entrepreneurship, corporate finance JEL classification numbers: E50, G21, G24
  • Ambrocio, Gene; Hasan, Iftekhar (2021)
    Journal of International Economics November
    Do stronger political ties with a global superpower improve sovereign borrowing conditions? We use data on voting at the United Nations General Assembly along with foreign aid flows to construct an index of political ties and find evidence that suggests stronger political ties with the US is associated with both better sovereign credit ratings and lower yields on sovereign bonds especially among lower income countries. We use official heads-of-state visits to the White House and coalition forces troop contributions as additional measures of the strength of political ties to further reinforce our findings.
  • Vesala, Timo (2005)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 3/2005
    Published in Journal of Banking & Finance, 31, 2, 2007: 477-493
    This paper studies relationship lending in a framework where the cost of switching banks measures the degree of banking competition. The relationship lender's (insider bank's) informational advantage creates a lock-in effect, which is at its height when the switching cost is infinitesimal.This is because a low switching cost gives rise to a potential adverse selection problem, and outsider banks are thus reluctant to make overly aggressive bids.This effect gradually fades as the magnitude of the switching cost increases, which de facto reduces the insider bank's profits.However, after a certain threshold in the switching cost, the insider bank's 'mark-up' begins to increase again.Hence, relationship benefits are a non-monotonous (V-shaped) function of the switching cost.The 'dynamic implication' of this pattern is that relationship formation should be more common under extreme market structures ie when the cost of switching banks is either very low or sufficiently high.Recent empirical evidence lends support to this prediction. Key words: relationship lending, switching cost, banking competition JEL classification numbers: G21, G24, D82, D43
  • Buchanan, Bonnie G. (2016)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 31/2016
    Published in Journal of Business Ethics, October 2016, Volume 138, Issue 3: 559–577
    Securitization is considered to be one of the biggest financial innovations of the last century. It is also regarded as both a catalyst and solution to the 2008 financial crisis. Once a popular method of financing the mortgage and consumer credit markets, aspects of the global securitization market are now struggling to revive. In this paper I discuss the role that ethics played in securitization prior to the 2008 financial crisis and find that it is not an obvious story of moral failures, but rather that it lies in more subtle elements of the financial system. The ethics uncertainty role in the securitization story is one of flawed incentives and the shifting of responsibility for handling risk. The role of securitization and the ethics of risk transfer have rarely been discussed explicitly in the literature. The historical origins of securitization and lessons learned from previous flawed uses of the process are also provided. I also detail the various global institutional reform proposals that have taken place. Moving forward, it is crucial to understand the causes, consequences and ethical implications of securitization in the financial crisis so as to help individuals and managers better assess risk, align incentives and design appropriate policy responses.
  • Magnus, Blomkvist; Korkeamäki, Timo; Takalo, Tuomas (2020)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 15/2020
    We propose a rationale for why firms often return to the equity market shortly after their initial public offering (IPO). We argue that hard to value firms conduct smaller IPOs, and that they return to the equity market conditional on positive valuation signal from the stock market. Thus, information asymmetry is not a necessary condition for staged financing. We find strong support for these arguments in a sample of 2,143 U.S. IPOs between 1981-2014. Hard to value firms conduct smaller IPOs, and upon positive post-IPO returns, they tend to return to the equity market quickly, following the IPO.
  • Niinimäki, Juha-Pekka; Takalo, Tuomas; Kultti, Klaus (2006)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 1/2006
    Published in Finnish Economic Papers, Volume 20, No. 2, 2007, Pages 91-107
    This paper studies how comparing can be used to provide information in financial markets in the presence of a hidden characteristics problem.Although an investor cannot precisely estimate the future returns of an entrepreneur's projects, the investor can mitigate the asymmetric information problem by ranking different entrepreneurs and financing only the very best ones.Information asymmetry can be eliminated with certainty if the number of compared projects is sufficiently large.Because comparing favours centralised information gathering, it creates a novel rationale for the establishment of a financial intermediary.Key words: asymmetric information, banking, corporate finance, financial intermediation, ranking, venture capital JEL classification numbers: G21, G24