Browsing by Subject "G28"

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  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Hanousek, Jan (2006)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 14/2006
    This paper deals with the relationship between mass privatization and stock market development in transition economies.The link is investigated empirically using a panel of data that includes most transition countries.Our results confirm the hypothesis that mass privatization exerted a negative influence on stock market functioning over the short and medium term.Further, it appears that stock markets in countries with mass privatization were initially perceived as mere byproducts of the privatization process.Such stock markets typically not only failed in their core mission of providing capital for the corporate sector, but generated negative investor sentiment and did little to catalyze economic growth. JEL Classifications: G15, G28, P34 Keywords: privatization, mass privatization, emerging stock markets, stock market
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Xie, Ru (2012)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 8/2012
    Published in Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Volume 49, Issue 2, 1 March 2013, Pages 4-18 as Foreign bank entry and bank corporate governance in China
    China employs a unique foreign bank entry model. Instead of allowing full foreign control of domestic banks, foreign investors are only permitted to be involved in the local banks as minority shareholders. At the same time, foreign strategic investors are expected to commit to bank corporate governance improvement and new technology support. In this context, the paper examines the effect of foreign strategic investors on Chinese bank performance. Based on a unique data set of bank ownership, performance, corporate governance and stock returns from 2003 to 2007, our regression and event study analysis results suggest that active involvement of foreign strategic investors in bank management have improved the corporate governance model of Chinese banks from a control based model to a market oriented model, and accordingly have promoted bank performance. JEL Classification Code: G21, G28, G34, F23 Keywords: China, Foreign Market Entry, Corporate Governance
  • Delis, Manthos D.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Iosifidi, Maria; Li, Lingxiang (Elsevier, 2018)
    Journal of Banking & Finance December ; 2018
    Using the full sample of U.S. banks and hand-collected data on enforcement actions over 2000–2014, we analyze the role of these interventions in promoting several aspects of accounting quality. We find that enforcement actions issued for both risk-related and accounting-related reasons lead to significant improvements in accounting quality. This improvement is consistently found for earnings smoothing, big-bath accounting, timely recognition of future loan losses, the association of loan loss provisions with future loan charge offs, loss avoidance, and cash flow predictability and earnings persistence. Most of the effects are somewhat more potent in the crisis period and survive in several sensitivity tests. Our findings highlight the imperative role of regulatory interventions in promoting bank accounting quality.
  • Takalo, Tuomas; Tanayama, Tanja (2008)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 19/2008
    Published in Journal of Technology Transfer, Volume 35, Number 1, February 2010: 16-41
    We study the interaction between private and public funding of innovative projects in the presence of adverse-selection based financing constraints. Government programmes allocating direct subsidies are based on ex-ante screening of the subsidy applications. This selection scheme may yield valuable information to market-based financiers. We find that under certain conditions, public R&D subsidies can reduce the financing constraints of technology-based entrepreneurial firms. Firstly, the subsidy itself reduces the capital costs related to innovation projects by reducing the amount of market-based capital required. Secondly, the observation that an entrepreneur has received a subsidy for an innovation project provides an informative signal to market-based financiers. We also find that public screening works more efficiently if it is accompanied by subsidy allocation. Keywords: adverse selection, innovation finance, financial constraints, R&D subsidies, certification JEL classification numbers: D82, G28, H20, O30, O38
  • Mayes, David G. (2004)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 4/2004
    Published in Journal of Banking and Finance, Vol. 29, No. 1 (Special Issue), January 2005: 161-181
    In the light of the inequity of the way losses from bank insolvencies and their avoidance through intervention by the authorities have been distributed over creditors, depositors, owners and the population at large in transition and emerging economies, this paper explores a number of regulatory reforms that would alter the balance between seeking to avoid insolvency and lowering the costs of insolvency should it occur.In particular it considers whether a lex specialis for dealing with banks that are in trouble through prompt corrective action and if necessary resolving them if their net worth falls to zero, at little or no cost to the taxpayer can be applied in the institutional framework of transition and emerging economies. Key words: insolvency, banks, transition, emerging economies JEL classification numbers: K23, G21, O16, G28, E53
  • Ambrocio, Gene; Hasan, Iftekhar; Jokivuolle, Esa; Ristolainen, Kim (2020)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 10/2020
    Published in Journal of Financial Stability 2020 ; 50 ; October https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfs.2020.100772
    We survey 149 leading academic researchers on bank capital regulation. The median (average) respondent prefers a 10% (15%) minimum non-risk-weighted equity-to-assets ratio, which is considerably higher than the current requirement. North Americans prefer a significantly higher equity-to-assets ratio than Europeans. We find substantial support for the new forms of regulation introduced in Basel III, such as liquidity requirements. Views are most dispersed regarding the use of hybrid assets and bail-inable debt in capital regulation. 70% of experts would support an additional market-based capital requirement. When investigating factors driving capital requirement preferences, we find that the typical expert believes a five percentage points increase in capital requirements would “probably decrease” both the likelihood and social cost of a crisis with “minimal to no change” to loan volumes and economic activity. The best predictor of capital requirement preference is how strongly an expert believes that higher capital requirements would increase the cost of bank lending.
  • Ambrocio, Gene; Hasan, Iftekhar; Jokivuolle, Esa; Ristolainen, Kim (2020)
    Journal of Financial Stability October ; 2020
    Published in BoF DP 10/2020 http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:bof-202006012160
    We survey 149 leading academic researchers on bank capital regulation. The median (average) respondent prefers a 10% (15%) minimum non-risk-weighted equity-to-assets ratio, which is considerably higher than the current requirement. North Americans prefer a significantly higher equity-to-assets ratio than Europeans. We find substantial support for the new forms of regulation introduced in Basel III, such as liquidity requirements. Views are most dispersed regarding the use of hybrid assets and bail-inable debt in capital regulation. 70% of experts would support an additional market-based capital requirement. When investigating factors driving capital requirement preferences, we find that the typical expert believes a five percentage points increase in capital requirements would “probably decrease” both the likelihood and social cost of a crisis with “minimal to no change” to loan volumes and economic activity. The best predictor of capital requirement preference is how strongly an expert believes that higher capital requirements would increase the cost of bank lending.
  • Tölö, Eero; Jokivuolle, Esa; Virén, Matti (2015)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 29/2015
    Published in Journal of Financial Services Research 2021 ; 60 ; 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10693-021-00351-2
    We investigate how European banks’ overnight borrowing costs depend on bank size. We use the Eurosystem’s proprietary interbank daily loan data on euro-denominated transactions from 2008-2014. We find that large banks have had a clear borrowing cost advantage over small banks and that this premium increases progressively with the size of the bank. This result is robust with respect to subsamples, subperiods, time aggregation, and control variables such as Tier 1 capital ratio and rating. During episodes of financial stress, the size advantage becomes several times larger. However, we also find evidence that the new recovery and resolution framework for banks may have slightly reduced the borrowing cost advantage of larger banks in Europe.
  • Kemppainen, Kari (2005)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 19/2005
    This paper considers effects of price regulation in retail payment systems by applying the model of telecommunications competition by Laffont-Rey-Tirole (1998).In our two-country model world there is one retail payment network located in each country and markets are segmented à la Hotelling.We show that the optimal price under price regulation is the weighted average of pre-regulation domestic and cross-border prices where the degree of home-bias in making payments serves as the weight.Furthermore, we find that the general welfare effects of price regulation are ambiguous: gross social welfare is higher under price discrimination than under price regulation in the special case where costs of access to banking services (transportation costs) are high.However, there also exist cases where prohibitively high transaction costs make price discrimination to reduce total welfare.Finally, if transportation costs are reduced sufficiently, segmentation of payment markets is eliminated.Markets then become fullyserved as in the original Laffont-Rey-Tirole model, suggesting that price discrimination would be beneficial for welfare. Key words: payment systems, price regulation, retail payments JEL classification numbers: D49, G28, L59
  • Jokivuolle, Esa; Vihriälä, Vesa; Virolainen, Kimmo; Westman, Hanna (2020)
    Nordic Economic Policy Review
    The global financial crisis has led to extensive regulatory reforms around the globe. The bail-in rules introduced in the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive are an essential part of the new bank crisis management landscape in Europe. The paper seeks to clarify their implications and applicability in three ways. First, we provide a concise overview of the issues involved based on recent – mainly theoretical – literature. Second, we describe the key features of the European resolution framework. Third, we discuss the implications of the bail-in approach for crisis management in the Nordic context.
  • Kauko, Karlo (World Scientific, 2018)
    Singapore Economic Review 3
    Policy discussions are dominated by the view that governmental safety nets offered to banks cause moral hazard and encourage risk-taking. However, [Cordella, T and E Levy Yeyati (2003). Bank bailouts: moral hazard vs. value effect. Journal of Financial Intermediation, 12, 300–330.] proposed that government support offered during crises may increase bank franchise value, resulting in less risk-taking. This paper presents additional theoretical results on the franchise value effect. The franchise value effect can dominate over the moral hazard effect even when there are no specific crisis periods. The franchise value effect dominates if bank shareholders have a weak time preference and if the decision on the intensity of risk monitoring is a long-term choice.
  • Goderis, Benedikt; Marsh, Ian W.; Castello, Judit Vall; Wagner, Wolf (2007)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 4/2007
    One of the most important recent innovations in financial markets has been the development of credit derivative products that allow banks to more actively manage their credit portfolios than ever before.We analyse the effect that access to these markets has had on the lending behaviour of a sample of banks, using a sample of banks that have not accessed these markets as a control group.We find that banks that adopt advanced credit risk management techniques (proxied by the issuance of at least one collateralized loan obligation) experience a permanent increase in their target loan levels of around 50%.Partial adjustment to this target, however, means that the impact on actual loan levels is spread over several years.Our findings confirm the general efficiency-enhancing implications of new risk management techniques in a world with frictions suggested in the theoretical literature. Keywords: credit derivatives, bank loans, moral hazard JEL classification numbers: G20, G21, G28
  • Molyneux, Philip; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Chunxia (2014)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 16/2014
    We investigate ownership effects on capital and adjustments speed to the target capital ratio in China from 2000 to 2012 and find that state-owned banks hold higher levels of capital than banks of other ownership types. Foreign banks are more highly capitalized than local non-state banks but under-capitalized compared with the bigger non-state banks with nationwide presence. Foreign banks adjust risk-weighted capital towards their optimal targets at a slower speed than domestic banks, while foreign minority ownership results in a faster adjustment process. Capital is positively influenced by profitability, asset diversification and liquidity risk, but negatively influenced by bank market power. Capital ratios typically co-move with the business cycle although this relationship is reversed during the crisis period due to active government intervention. Our results are robust to various modelling specifications and have important policy implications. Publication keywords: banking, capital, adjustment, ownership, China
  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Weill, Laurent; Zhou, Mingming (2010)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 17/2010
    Published in Journal of Financial Services Research, 51(1), 2017: 97-123
    This paper examines how the introduction of deposit insurance influences the relationship between bank cap-ital and liquidity creation. As discussed by Berger and Bouwman (2009), there are two competing hypothes-es on this relationship which can be influenced by the presence of deposit insurance. The introduction of a deposit insurance scheme in an emerging market, Russia, provides a natural experiment to investigate this issue. We study three alternative measures of bank liquidity creation and perform estimations on a large set of Russian banks. Our findings suggest that the introduction of the deposit insurance scheme exerts a limited impact on the relationship between bank capital and liquidity creation and does not change the negative sign of the relationship. The implication is that better capitalized banks tend to create less liquidity, which sup-ports the "financial fragility/crowding-out" hypothesis. This conclusion has important policy implications for emerging countries as it suggests that bank capital requirements implemented to support financial stability may harm liquidity creation. JEL classification: G21; G28; G38; P30; P50 Keywords: Bank capital, liquidity creation, deposit insurance, Russia
  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Weill, Laurent; Zhou, Mingming (2017)
    Journal of Financial Services Research 1
    Published in BOFIT Discussion Papers 17/2010.
    This paper examines how the introduction of deposit insurance influences the relationship between bank capital and liquidity creation.
  • Deli, Yota; Delis, Manthos D.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Liu, Liuling (2016)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 23/2016
    Formal enforcement actions issued against banks for violations of laws and regulations related to safety and soundness can theoretically have both positive and negative effects on the terms of lending. Using hand-collected data on such enforcement actions issued against U.S. banks, we show that they have a strong negative effect on price terms (loan spreads and fees) for corporate loans and a positive one on non-price terms (loan maturity, size, covenants, and collateral). The results also indicate that in the absence of enforcement actions, the cost of borrowing during the subprime crisis would have been much higher, while punished banks intensify use of collateral.
  • Granlund, Peik (2002)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 25/2002
    This paper analyses bank exit (ie reorganisation and liquidation) legislation in selected financial centres: New York, London, Frankfurt, Helsinki and Tokyo.The focus is on bank exit legislation applicable to commercial banks.The legislation is analysed from the perspective of bank stakeholders, ie bank creditors, depositors and bank shareholders.The analysis is restricted to those legislative provisions that provide security and rights for stakeholders in case of bank exit.In addition to current conditions, the paper covers the main legislative changes of the latter part of the 1990s. Key words: bank, regulation, supervision, reorganisation, liquidation JEL classification numbers: G28, K23
  • König-Kersting, Christian; Trautmann, Stefan T.; Vlahu, Razvan (2020)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 14/2020
    We study the impact of disclosure about bank fundamentals on depositors’ behavior in the presence (and absence) of economic linkages between financial institutions. Using a controlled laboratory environment, we identify under which conditions disclosure is conducive to bank stability. We find that bank deposits are sensitive to perceived bank performance. While banks with strong fundamentals benefit from more precise disclosure, an opposing effect is present for solvent banks with weaker fundamentals. Depositors take information about economic linkages into account and correctly identify when disclosure about one institution conveys meaningful information for others. Our findings highlight both the costs and benefits of bank transparency and suggest that disclosure is not always stability enhancing.
  • Berger, Allen N.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Zhou, Mingming (2007)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 16/2007
    Published in Journal of Banking & Finance, Volume 33, Issue 1, January 2009, Pages 113-130
    China is reforming its banking system, partially privatizing and permitting minority foreign ownership of three of the dominant 'big four' state-owned banks. This paper seeks to help predict the effects of this change by analysing the efficiency of virtually all Chinese banks in the years 1994-2003. Our findings suggest the big four banks are by far the least efficient and foreign banks the most efficient while minority foreign ownership is associated with significantly improved efficiency. We present corroborating robustness checks and offer several credible mechanisms through which minority foreign owners can increase Chinese bank efficiency. These findings suggest that minority foreign ownership of the big four is likely to significantly improve performance. Keywords: China, foreign banks, efficiency, foreign ownership JEL classification numbers: G21, G28, G34, F23
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Jackowicz, Krzysztof; Kowalewski, Oskar; Kozłowski, Łukasz (2014)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 22/2014
    Published as "Do local banking market structures matter for SME financing and performance? New evidence from an emerging economy" in Journal of Banking and Finance, 79, June 2017: 142-158
    In this paper, by employing a novel approach, we study the relationship between bank type and small-business lending in a post-transition country. Using a unique dataset on bank branches and firm-level data, we find that local cooperative banks lend more to small businesses than do large domestic banks and foreign-owned banks, even when controlling for the financial situation of the cooperative banks. Additionally, our results suggest that cooperative banks provide loans to small businesses at lower costs than foreign-owned banks or large domestic banks. Finally, we show that small and medium-sized firms perform better in counties with a large number of cooperative banks than in counties dominated by foreign-owned banks or large domestic banks. Our results are important from a policy perspective, as they show that foreign bank entry and industry consolidation may raise valid concerns for small firms in developing countries. Keywords: small-business lending, cooperative banks, foreign banks, post-transition countries