Browsing by Subject "G38"

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  • Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; Song, Liang (2012)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 12/2012
    Published in Journal of Financial Research, Volume 35, Issue 3, October 2012: 343-374
    We investigate how borrowers corporate governance influences bank loan contracting terms in emerging markets and how this relation varies across countries with different country-level governance. We find that borrowers with stronger corporate governance obtain favorable contracting terms with respect to loan amount, maturity, collateral requirements, and spread. Firm-level and country-level corporate governance are substitutes in writing and enforcing financial contracts. We also find that the distinctiveness of borrowers characteristics affect the relation between firm-level corporate governance and loan contracting terms. Our findings are robust, irrespective of types of regression methods and specifications. JEL Classification: G20, G30, G31, G34, G38.
  • Shen, Chung-Hua; Huang, Yu-Li; Hasan, Iftekhar (2012)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 13/2012
    This study proposes an information asymmetry hypothesis to examine why bank credit ratings vary among countries even when bank financial ratios remain constant. Countries are divided among those with low and high information asymmetry. The former include high-income countries, those in North America and West Europe regions, and those with strong institutional environment quality, whereas the latter group possess the opposite characteristics. This study hypothesizes that the influences of financial ratios on ratings are enhanced in low information asymmetry countries but reduced in countries with high information asymmetry. The sample includes the long-term credit ratings issued by Standard and Poor's from 86 countries during 2002-2008. The estimated results show that the effects of financial ratios on ratings are significantly affected by information asymmetries. Countries wishing to improve the credit ratings of their banks thus should reduce information asymmetry. JEL classification: G21; G32; G38 Keywords: Bank rating; Financial ratio; Information asymmetry; Institutional quality
  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Weill, Laurent; Zhou, Mingming (2010)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 17/2010
    Published in Journal of Financial Services Research, 51(1), 2017: 97-123
    This paper examines how the introduction of deposit insurance influences the relationship between bank cap-ital and liquidity creation. As discussed by Berger and Bouwman (2009), there are two competing hypothes-es on this relationship which can be influenced by the presence of deposit insurance. The introduction of a deposit insurance scheme in an emerging market, Russia, provides a natural experiment to investigate this issue. We study three alternative measures of bank liquidity creation and perform estimations on a large set of Russian banks. Our findings suggest that the introduction of the deposit insurance scheme exerts a limited impact on the relationship between bank capital and liquidity creation and does not change the negative sign of the relationship. The implication is that better capitalized banks tend to create less liquidity, which sup-ports the "financial fragility/crowding-out" hypothesis. This conclusion has important policy implications for emerging countries as it suggests that bank capital requirements implemented to support financial stability may harm liquidity creation. JEL classification: G21; G28; G38; P30; P50 Keywords: Bank capital, liquidity creation, deposit insurance, Russia
  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Weill, Laurent; Zhou, Mingming (2017)
    Journal of Financial Services Research 1
    Published in BOFIT Discussion Papers 17/2010.
    This paper examines how the introduction of deposit insurance influences the relationship between bank capital and liquidity creation.
  • Fang, Yiwei; Hasan, Iftekhar; Li, Lingxiang (2014)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 19/2014
    ​The dynamic banking reforms of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) following the collapse of the Soviet Union provide an ideal research setting for examining the causal effect of institutional development on financial reporting. Using five earnings quality measures, we consistently find that banking reform improves accounting quality and reduces earnings management incentives in the 16 transition countries considered. The results strongly hold in our within-country and difference-in-difference models, as well as in non-parametric analyses. We also find supporting evidence for the notion that excessive risk-taking of banks impairs earnings quality. As a result, banking reform improves earnings quality partially through its ability to curb risk-taking behavior. Publication keywords: earnings management, earnings quality, institutional development, bank risk-taking
  • He, Qing; Huang, Jiyuan; Li, Dongxu; Lu, Liping (2016)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 19/2016
    ​This paper examines the governance role of banks in replacement of underperforming CEOs in firms listed on Chinese stock exchanges. Under most circumstances, the findings suggest that the presence of outstanding loans does not increase the probability that a poorly performing CEO will be forced out and replaced. However, there is a positive and significant effect if the under-performing firm relies heavily on secured and short-term bank lending. Bank loans increase the likelihood of a forced CEO turnover in private firms, especially where joint-equity banks serve as the main lenders to the firm. There is no similar increase in the probability of a CEO turnover for state-owned firms or firms that borrow mainly from state-owned banks. Thus, where state ownership of banks and listed firms implies inefficiency or reluctance on monitoring borrower performance, there is an opportunity to improve loan contract arrangements to improve the mon-itoring role of lending banks.
  • Kang, Shulong; Dong, Jianfeng; Yu, Haiyue; Cao, Jin; Dinger, Valeriya (2021)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 4/2021
    This paper investigates how government-led banking liberalization affects credit allocation by banks using as a quasi-natural experiment the establishment of city commercial banks (CCBs) in China. Based on more than three million corporate financial statements spanning over 16 years, we find that the establishment of CCBs led to a 6–14 % drop in debt funding for private firms, as well as a 1–2 % rise in their funding costs. At the same time, private infrastructure firms enjoyed a nearly 6 % increase in debt funding and more than 100-basis-point drop in interest costs despite their inferior credit quality. The debt financing of private firm appears most severely affected in municipalities where officials face high promotional pressures or fiscal constraints.
  • Wang, Chunyang (2017)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 8/2017
    The rise of city commercial banks (CCBs) in Chinese cities provides a unique opportunity to study the finance and growth nexus at the city level. Given the notorious inefficiency of China's “Big Four” state banks, policymakers attempted to correct the situation in 1995 through the creation of a new kind of local bank designed to promote local growth by lending to small and medium-sized enterprises. Using 1990-2009 panel data for 283 prefectural-level cities and four provincial-status municipalities, we find that the establishment of CCBs significantly reduced local economic growth overall. We suggest this outcome stems from the ability of firms to bribe local government officials to obtain credit from their local CCBs. In our proposed model for crony banking relations, large firms spend disproportionately larger amounts of time and bribe money cultivation relations with local officials involved in CCB lending decisions, so we expect large firms to have easier access to credit than small firms even if it results in inefficient lending. Using data on 206,771 firms for 1999-2007, we find that cities with CCBs had significantly lower overall growth rates. Small firms, in particular, were negatively impacted by the presence of CCBs, while large firms benefited from their presence. In the cities with CCBs, large firms, even those with relatively poor return-on-assets ratios, obtained more credit than small firms in aggregate. Using data from the 2005 World Bank Business Environment Survey, we find that an increase in a firm's crony relations with the government, measured in terms of the average number of days a month top managers of the firm spend interacting with government officials, increases the likelihood a firm will be granted bank credit. This effect was quite distinct for cities with CCBs.
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; John, Kose; Kadiyalad, Padma (2016)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 13/2016
    We augment the LLSV creditor rights index with a new “restructuring index” that measures the incentives provided to creditors to grant concessions outside formal bankruptcy. We study the joint impact of the two indexes on a firm’s leverage policy. We show that the two indexes have at most a statistically weak effect on the level of long-term debt. Instead, the two indexes affect the distribution of long-term debt into bank debt, public debt and private placements. Bank debt increases when the values of both indexes are high. Public debt increases when the creditor rights index is high, but the restructuring index is low, and private placements increase when the restructuring index is high, but the creditor rights index is low. Smaller firms with fewer tangible assets borrow more from banks when both the creditor rights and restructuring indexes are high. When aggregated at the country level, these firm-level results suggest that bankruptcy law can influence the relative importance of credit and equity markets as sources of financing GDP growth.
  • Chen, Yu-Fu; Funke, Michael; Tao, Kunyu (2015)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 5/2015
    This paper analyses the financial distortions – growth nexus in China using a tractable general equilibrium modelling approach in which heterogeneous private and state-owned firms interact. The focal points of the model are financial frictions and reallocations of factors of production across firms. The calibrated version of the model elicits the important message that the adoption of a comprehensive financial market reform package abolishing financial distortions will lead to substantial output gains. Thus, structural policies leading to more efficient allocation of factors of production will remain a key policy challenge in China in the years to come. Publication keywords: financial distortions, financial liberalisation, general equilibrium model, China
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Song, Liang; Wachtel, Paul (2013)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 20/2013
    Published in Journal of Comparative Economics, Volume 42, Issue 1, February 2014, Pages 92–108
    Better developed legal and political institutions result in greater availability of reliable firm-specific information. When stock prices reflect more firm-specific information there will be less stock price synchronicity. This paper traces the experience of China, an economy undergoing dramatic institutional change in the last 20 years with rich variation in experiences across provinces. We show that stock price synchronicity is lower when there is institutional development in terms of property rights protection and rule of law. Further-more, we investigate the influence of political pluralism on synchronicity. A more pluralistic regime reduces uncertainty and opaqueness regarding government interventions and therefore increases the value of firm-specific information that reduces synchronicity. JEL Classification Numbers: G14; G15; G24; G38 Keywords: Institutions; China; stock price synchronicity
  • Rainio, Elina (2006)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 16/2006
    Viimeaikaisten law and finance -tutkimusten mukaan yritysten ohjausjärjestelmien uudistamiseen ja sijoittajan suojan kohentamiseen tähtäävä lainsäädännön kehittäminen vaikuttaa suotuisasti rahoitusmarkkinoiden toimintaan ja kehitykseen. Suomessa osakeyhtiölaki on perinteisesti ollut keskeisessä asemassa yritystoiminnan ja rahoitusmarkkinoiden sääntelyssä, mutta sen konkreettisia vaikutuksia rahoitusmarkkinoiden toimintaan ei ole aikaisemmin tutkittu kattavasti.Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten vuoden 1980 osakeyhtiölakiuudistus vaikutti sijoittajan suojaan ja yritysten osakkeiden arvoon.Tutkimus osoittaa, että käytetyillä mittareilla mitattuna vuoden 1980 lakimuutos paransi sekä osakesijoittajien että velkojien oikeuksia, mutta velkojien suoja parani huomattavasti enemmän kuin osakkeenomistajien suoja.Vaikutuksia yritysten arvoon on tutkittu selvittämällä, miten lakimuutokseen liittyvät uutiset vaikuttivat osakkeiden tuottoon 1970-luvun aikana.Useiden uutisten tapauksessa markkinoille tuleva uusi informaatio ei vaikuta merkitsevästi osakkeiden tuottoon.Lakimuutokseen ei liittynyt suuria yllätyksiä, koska informaation välittyminen pienillä, suljetuilla rahoitusmarkkinoilla oli tehokasta.Asiasanat: osakeyhtiölaki, rahoitusmarkkinat, sijoittajan suoja, uutiset, yritysten ohjausjärjestelmät JEL classification numbers: G14, G32, G38
  • Sokolov, Vladimir; Solanko, Laura (2016)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 20/2016
    We examine how regional-level political influence affects firm financial performance and survival. Combining representative survey data on mid-sized manufacturing firms in Russia with official registry data, we find that politically influential firms exhibit higher profitability and retain larger financial investments than non-influential firms. At the same time, we find no association between regional political influence and access to bank lending. Most importantly, our empirical analysis suggests that the benefits of influence may be transient. Influential firms experienced significantly lower growth during our 2004–2010 sample period than non-influential firms. Moreover, influential firms had a significantly higher probability of going bankrupt after the 2008 global financial crisis than non-influential firms.
  • Haavio, Markus; Ripatti, Antti; Takalo, Tuomas (2016)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 12/2016
    ​We build a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model, where the balance sheets of both banks and non-financial firms play a role in macro-financial linkages. We show that in equilibrium bank capital tends to be scarce, compared with firm capital. We study public funding of banks and firms in times of crisis. Government capital injections can be useful as a shock cushion, but they distort incentives. Small capital injections benefit banks more than firms but the relative benefit is declining in the injection size. Government should first recapitalize banks, and if resources are large enough, lend to firms too.
  • Mattlin, Mikael (2007)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 10/2007
    This paper reviews recent regulatory and policy changes that affect the Chinese central government's ownership and authority over the capital allocations of strategic state-owned enterprises (SOE).The paper examines the reform of the central government's relationship with key SOEs as a consequence of the establishment of the State Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council (SASAC) in 2003, the coming introduction of a centralised operating and budgeting system for SOEs, and the government's ongoing re-evaluation of its ownership policy.SASAC appears to have the potential to develop into a major actor in China's domestic capital allocation, with an active role in strategic financing and restructuring of key sectors of the Chinese economy. The data reviewed for this paper strongly suggests that the Chinese central government aims to retain significant ownership control over key SOEs and, by extension, over a major part of the domestic economy.The new operating and budgeting system is set to significantly enhance central government control over SOEs' capital allocation. Key words: State-owned enterprises, privatisation, corporate governance, China JEL classification: G32, G38, P26, P31
  • Leventis, Stergios; Hasan, Iftekhar; Dedoulis, Emmanouil (2013)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 13/2013
    Published in International Review of Financial Analysis, Volume 29, September 2013, Pages 152-165
    In this paper we provide evidence for the effects of social norms on audit pricing by studying companies belonging to the alcohol, firearms, gambling, military, nuclear power, and tobacco industries, which are often described as "sin" companies. We hypothesize that the disparities between "sin" firms operations and prevailing social norms create an adverse context which heightens the client's business risk assessment by auditors and is, thereby, reflected in the pricing decisions for audit and consulting services. Having controlled for the impact of variables relating to client attributes, auditor attributes and engagement attributes, we demonstrate that audit firms charge significantly higher audit and consulting fees to companies that deviate from prevailing social norms. Additionally, we show that audit pricing levels within the "sin" group depend both on prevailing political views and on the level of "vice" exhibited by "sin" companies. Keywords: Social norms, audit pricing, controversial industries, sin companies. JEL Classification: G21, G30, G34, G38, M41.
  • Mälkönen, Ville (2004)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 17/2004
    This paper studies the competitive and efficiency implications of financial conglomeration driven by cost-efficiency gains in monitoring credit and insurance customers.The analysis shows that conglomeration is conducive to tougher competition in the credit market and increases profit in insurance.The aggregate profit in the financial sector does not increase, because the conglomerates pass the cost-efficiency gains on to the borrowers in full.More competitive market for financial services also reduces the aggregate risk in the financial markets, indicating that capital requirements in both sectors should be lower in the presence of financial conglomerates Key words: financial conglomerates, banking, insurance, capital regulation JEL classification numbers: G21, G22, G38, L40
  • Buchanan, Bonnie; Cao, Xuying (Cathy); Liljeblom, Eva; Weihrich, Susan (2016)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 11/2016
    Published in Journal of Corporate Finance 2017 ; 42 ; February ; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcorpfin.2016.11.008
    We examine how firms respond to uncertainty around U.S. tax policy changes, namely the individual level tax rate increases set to take effect on January 1, 2011 and January 1, 2013. We provide evidence that firms time the uncertainty in the tax environment and revise their dividend policy to an expected tax increase. We find that firms are likely to initiate their dividends or intensively increase their existing dividend amount one year before the expected tax increase. In addition, in 2012 when there is much less uncertainty on dividend tax changes than in 2010, firms are less likely to initiate a regular dividend but are more likely to initiate special dividends. The results suggest that firms facing less tax uncertainty are less likely to make long-term commitments on regular dividend payments but are more likely to take advantage of the last-minute low tax benefits by issuing special dividends. Furthermore, the response to the possible elimination of a tax cut was strongest in firms with high levels of tax-affected ownership, supporting the argument that when facing policy uncertainty, firms behave to prepare for the worst scenarios from the viewpoint of the shareholders, which in this case is a tax increase.
  • Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; Song, Liang; Yeung, Bernard (2012)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 16/2012
    Published in Journal of Financial Intermediation, Volume 24, Issue 3, July 2015: 312–324
    This paper examines what institutional and bank-specific factors determine bank stock price synchronicity. Using data on 37 countries from 1996-2007, we find that bank stocks are more aligned with the whole market (1) during the financial crisis; (2) in countries that have more credit provided by banks; (3) in countries that do not have explicit depository insurance; and (4) in countries that have lower bank-level disclosure. The results hold for both emerging and developed economy subsamples. Furthermore, in emerging economies, bank stocks in countries with higher degree of state-owned bank are more synchronized with the whole market, similarly, in developed markets, lower banking freedom enhances bank stock price synchronicity. Finally, the effects of state ownership, protection of property rights, and bank size are all more pronounced when determining bank stock price synchronicity during the financial crisis period. Keywords: stock price synchronicity; financial crisis, bank ownership; deposit insurance; banking freedom; bank disclosure JEL classification: G12; G14; G15; G21; G38; N20