Browsing by Subject "Gini-kerroin"

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  • Delis, Manthos D.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Mylonidis, Nikolaos (2020)
    Applied Economics 11 ; March
    Using country-level panel data over 1995–2013 on within-country income inequality and foreign bank presence, this paper establishes a positive relation between the two, running from higher foreign bank presence to income inequality. Given that foreign bank participation increased by 62% over the period 1995 to 2013, our baseline results imply a 5.8% increase in the Gini coefficient on average over this period, ceteris paribus. These results are robust to the inclusion of country and year fixed effects and to the use of restrictions on foreign bank entry in the host countries as an instrumental variable. We show that this positive effect is channelled through the lack of greenfield entry and the associated lower levels of competition.
  • Herrala, Risto (2007)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 3/2007
  • Mäki-Fränti, Petri; Silvo, Aino; Gulan, Adam; Kilponen, Juha (2022)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 3/2022
    We study the impact of monetary policy on income and wealth distributions in a small open economy. To do so, we use household-level registry and survey data from Finland, a small member of a monetary union. This setup allows us to circumvent endogeneity issues and thus helps achieve causal interpretation. We find that expansionary monetary shocks stimulate economic activity, earnings, and asset prices, while barely affecting income and wealth inequality. The reduction in unemployment mostly benefits households in lower income quintiles, where the initial rate of unemployment is high. Households in upper income quintiles, where the rate of employment is higher, benefit relatively more from higher wages. Higher house prices increase the net wealth of all homeowners. However, due to a leverage effect, households with large mortgages located in the lower net wealth quintiles benefit most. Rising stock prices, in turn, benefit mainly households in the top net wealth quintile. Overall, these different channels have counteracting effects on income and wealth inequality.
  • Herrala, Risto (2007)
    EURO & TALOUS 3/2007
    Nopeasta velkaantumisvauhdista huolimatta suomalaisten kotitalouksien velkaantumisen taso ei ole vielä kansainvälisesti katsoen korkea. Suomen talouden rakenteen ja toimintaympäristön muutokset ovat vakauttaneet tulonmuodostusta ja korkotasoa. Lainamarkkinoista on tullut joustavampia. Laajamittainen kotitalouksien velkakriisi ei näytä todennäköiseltä.