Browsing by Author "Granziera, Eleonora"

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  • Granziera, Eleonora; Kilponen, Juha (2018)
    Euro & talous 3/2018
    Rahapoliittiset päätökset perustuvat arvioon talouden tilasta nykyhetkenä ja tulevaisuudessa. Ennusteiden tuottamista varten keskuspankit rakentavat malleja, joissa makrotalouden muuttujien monimutkainen vuorovaikutus esitetään yksinkertaistetusti. Suomen Pankki julkaisee säännöllisesti Suomen talouden ennusteen, joka perustuu laajaan tilastoaineistoon talouden kehityksestä. Tilastoaineiston analysoinnissa hyödynnetään makrotalouden malleja, ja malleja käytetään myös ennusteiden tuottamisessa. Ennusteissa esitetään tärkeimpien makrotalouden muuttujien todennäköisimmät arvot koskien Suomen taloutta.
  • Granziera, Eleonora; Kilponen, Juha (2018)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 3/2018
    Monetary policy decisions are based on assessment of the current and future state of the economy. In order to obtain forecasts, central banks build models, which are simplified representations of the complex interactions among macroeconomic variables. The Bank of Finland regularly publishes its forecasts, using a large set of data regarding current economic developments. Analysis of this large set of data includes the use of formal macroeconomic models, which are also employed to make projections for the future course of the economy. These projections represent the most likely values for the main macroeconomic variables of the Finnish economy.
  • Granziera, Eleonora; Sihvonen, Markus (2020)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 7/2020
    We propose a model in which sticky expectations concerning short-term interest rates generate joint predictability patterns in bond and currency markets. Using our calibrated model, we quantify the effect of this channel and find that it largely explains why short rates and yield spreads predict bond and currency returns. The model also creates the downward sloping term structure of carry trade returns documented by Lustig et al. (2019), difficult to replicate in a rational expectations framework. Consistent with the model, we find that variables that predict bond and currency returns also predict survey-based expectational errors concerning interest and FX rates. The model explains why monetary policy induces drift patterns in bond and currency markets and predicts that long-term rates are a better gauge of market’s short rate expectations than previously thought.
  • Granziera, Eleonora; Moon, Hyungsik Roger; Schorfheide, Frank (2018)
    Quantitative Economics 3 ; November ; 2018
    Published in NBER Working Papers 17140 (2011).
    There is a fast growing literature that set-identifies structural vector autoregressions (SVARs) by imposing sign restrictions on the responses of a subset of the endogenous variables to a particular structural shock (sign-restricted SVARs). Most methods that have been used to construct pointwise coverage bands for impulse responses of sign-restricted SVARs are justified only from a Bayesian perspective. This paper demonstrates how to formulate the inference problem for sign-restricted SVARs within a moment-inequality framework. In particular, it develops methods of constructing confidence bands for impulse response functions of sign-restricted SVARs that are valid from a frequentist perspective. The paper also provides a comparison of frequentist and Bayesian coverage bands in the context of an empirical application - the former can be substantially wider than the latter.
  • Granziera, Eleonora; Haavio, Markus; Juselius, Mikael; Kortelainen, Mika; Vilmi, Lauri (2018)
    Euro & talous 1/2018
    Kansainvälisen finanssikriisin jälkeen useat keskuspankit laskivat ohjauskorkonsa lähelle nollaa tai jopa sen alle ja ottivat käyttöön epätavanomaisia rahapoliittisia toimia, kuten ennakoivaa viestintää ja laajamittaisia omaisuuserien osto-ohjelmia. Finanssikriisi ja sitä seurannut Euroopan velkakriisi toivat esiin reaalitalouden ja rahoitusmarkkinoiden väliset tiiviit kytkökset. Uusi toimintaympäristö on haastanut myös rahapolitiikan mallinnuksen - ja koko makrotaloustieteen.
  • Granziera, Eleonora; Bauer, Gregory H. (2017)
    International Journal of Central Banking 3 ; September
    Can monetary policy be used to promote financial stability? We answer this question by estimating the impact of a monetary policy shock on private-sector leverage and the likelihood of a financial crisis. Impulse responses obtained from a panel VAR model of eighteen advanced countries suggest that the debt-to-GDP ratio rises in the short run following an unexpected tightening in monetary policy. As a consequence, the likelihood of a financial crisis increases, as estimated from a panel logit regression. However, in the long run, output recovers and higher borrowing costs discourage new lending, leading to a deleveraging of the private sector. A lower debt-to-GDP ratio in turn reduces the likelihood of a financial crisis. These results suggest that monetary policy can achieve a less risky financial system in the long run but could fuel financial instability in the short run. We also find that the ultimate effects of a monetary policy tightening on the probability of a financial crisis depend on the leverage of the private sector: the higher the initial value of the debt-to-GDP ratio, the more beneficial the monetary policy intervention in the long run, but the more destabilizing in the short run.
  • Granziera, Eleonora; Haavio, Markus; Juselius, Mikael; Kortelainen, Mika; Vilmi, Lauri (2018)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 1/2018
    In the aftermath of the global financial crisis many central banks cut their policy rates close to zero or even below and introduced non-standard monetary policy measures. The financial crisis and the European debt crisis that followed demonstrated the importance of the linkages between financial markets and the real economy. In this article we survey the open issues in economic research posed by limits on how low central banks are able to cut policy rates, and the unconventional measures, especially forward guidance and large scale asset purchase programmes.
  • Granziera, Eleonora; Sekhposyan, Tatevik (2019)
    International Journal of Forecasting 4 ; October-December
    Published in Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 23/2018.
    The relative performances of forecasting models change over time. This empirical observation raises two questions. First, is the relative performance itself predictable? Second, if so, can it be exploited in order to improve the forecast accuracy? We address these questions by evaluating the predictive abilities of a wide range of economic variables for two key US macroeconomic aggregates, namely industrial production and inflation, relative to simple benchmarks. We find that business cycle indicators, financial conditions, uncertainty and measures of past relative performances are generally useful for explaining the models’ relative forecasting performances. In addition, we conduct a pseudo-real-time forecasting exercise, where we use the information about the conditional performance for model selection and model averaging. The newly proposed strategies deliver sizable improvements over competitive benchmark models and commonly-used combination schemes. The gains are larger when model selection and averaging are based on both financial conditions and past performances measured at the forecast origin date.
  • Granziera, Eleonora; Sekhposyan, Tatevik (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 23/2018
    Also in International Journal of Forecasting 35 ; 2019 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijforecast.2019.01.010
    The relative performance of forecasting models changes over time. This empirical observation raises two questions: is the relative performance itself predictable? If so, can it be exploited to improve forecast accuracy? We address these questions by evaluating the predictive ability of a wide range of economic variables for two key US macroeconomic aggregates, industrial production and inflation, relative to simple benchmarks. We find that business indicators, financial conditions, uncertainty as well as measures of past relative performance are generally useful for explaining the relative forecasting performance of the models. We further conduct a pseudo-real-time forecasting exercise, where we use the information about the conditional performance for model selection and model averaging. The newly proposed strategies deliver sizable improvements over competitive benchmark models and commonly used combination schemes. Gains are larger when model selection and averaging are based on financial conditions as well as past performance measured at the forecast origin date.
  • Alpanda, Sami; Granziera, Eleonora; Zubairy, Sarah (2021)
    European Economic Review November
    Published in BoF DP 16/2019
    We study how phases of the business, credit and interest rate cycles affect the transmission of monetary policy using state-dependent local projection methods and data from 18 advanced economies. We find that the impact of monetary policy shocks on output and other macroeconomic and financial variables is weaker during periods of economic downturns, low household debt, and high interest rates. The business cycle state dependence tends to dominate the other documented state dependencies. We build a small-scale theoretical model to rationalize these facts. The model points to the presence of collateral and debt-service constraints on household borrowing and refinancing as potential drivers of state dependence of monetary policy with respect to the business, credit, and interest rate cycles. Our findings bear significant implications for the transmission of monetary policy, and highlight potentially important features to be considered in models used to inform monetary policy decisions.
  • Alpanda, Sami; Granziera, Eleonora; Zubairy, Sarah (2019)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 16/2019
    Published in the European Economic Review 2021 ; 140 ; November.
    We investigate how the business, credit and interest rate cycles affect the monetary transmission mechanism, using state-dependent local projection methods and data from 18 advanced economies. We exploit the time-series variation within countries, as well as cross-sectional variation across countries, to investigate this issue. We find that the impact of monetary policy shocks on output and most other macroeconomic and financial variables is smaller during periods of economic downturns, high household debt, and high interest rates. We then build a small-scale theoretical model to rationalize these facts. The model highlights the presence of collateral and debt-service constraints on household borrowing and refinancing as a potential cause for state dependence in monetary policy with respect to the business, credit, and interest rate cycles.
  • Granziera, Eleonora; Jalasjoki, Pirkka; Paloviita, Maritta (2021)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 7/2021
    We test for bias and efficiency of the ECB inflation forecasts using a confidential dataset of ECB macroeconomic quarterly projections. We investigate whether the properties of the forecasts depend on the level of inflation, by distinguishing whether the inflation observed by the ECB at the time of forecasting is above or below the target. The forecasts are unbiased and efficient on average, however there is evidence of state dependence. In particular, the ECB tends to overpredict (underpredict) inflation at intermediate forecast horizons when inflation is below (above) target. The magnitude of the bias is larger when inflation is above the target. These results hold even after accounting for errors in the external assumptions. We also find evidence of inefficiency, in the form of underreaction to news, but only when inflation is above the target. Our findings bear important implications for the ECB forecasting process and ultimately for its communication strategy.