Browsing by Author "Kaliva, Kasimir"

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  • Kaliva, Kasimir (2006)
    Insurance Supervisory Authority. Research report 1
    The aimof this paper is to study the dynamics of inflation and survey inflation expectations under sudden random level shifts in the inflation process. We suggest that the recently introduced mixture autoregressive MAR model is suitable for modelling this kind of behaviour. We arrived a a model where the inflation expectations are not fully rational in a sense that survey participants of the Livingston Survey adjust their expectations too conservatively in response to new evidence.
  • Kaliva, Kasimir; Koskinen, Lasse; Ronkainen, Vesa (2007)
    There is a major trend in the insurance sector towards arbitrage-free valuation of insurance liabilities and assets. The assumption of no-arbitrage is fundamental in financial modelling. This paper surveys assumptions of arbitragefree modelling and studies their consequences for the use of internal model in insurance. The model uncertainty arises as a particularly severe problem under the assumption that the conditions of arbitrage-free complete market theory do not hold and all participants in the market are not fully rational. We argue that the approximation errors of these idealistic assumptions are generally larger in insurance applications than elsewhere in the financial sector. Hence, the model uncertainty plays a particularly important role in the use of internal models. This should be taken into account in the development of the models and in risk management practice. Finally, we present some known Bayesian methods that might be useful for managing the model risk.
  • Kaliva, Kasimir; Koskinen, Lasse (2006)
    Insurance Supervisory Authority. Research reports 2
    This paper proposes an autoregressive regime-switching model of stock price dynamics in which the process creates pricing bubbles in one regime while error-correction prevails in the other. In the bubble regime the stock price depends negatively on inflation. In the error-correction regime it depends on the price-dividend -ratio. We find that the probability of regime-switch depends on exogenous inflation and lagged price. The model is consistent with Shleifer and Vishny’s theoretical noise trader and arbitrageur model and Modigliani’s inflation illusion phenomenon. The results emphasize the importance of inflation and the price-dividend -ratio when assessing investment risk.
  • Kaliva, Kasimir; Koskinen, Lasse (2008)
    In this paper we quantify the risk caused by the crash of a pricing bubble in the US stock market by utilizing a recently introduced econometric bubble model. The skewness and kurtosis are shown to vary widely with the price-dividend ratio. Simulation experiments quantify how the moments and VaR of the predictive distribution depend on the holding period, the price-dividend ratio and inflation. This information is useful in deciding on market timing and needed risk capital. In addition the analysis of higher moments support the old wisdom that stocks are a more attractive investment in the long run than in the short run.