Browsing by Author "Kowalewski, Oskar"

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  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Jackowicz, Krzysztof; Kowalewski, Oskar; Kozłowski, Łukasz (2014)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 22/2014
    Published as "Do local banking market structures matter for SME financing and performance? New evidence from an emerging economy" in Journal of Banking and Finance, 79, June 2017: 142-158
    In this paper, by employing a novel approach, we study the relationship between bank type and small-business lending in a post-transition country. Using a unique dataset on bank branches and firm-level data, we find that local cooperative banks lend more to small businesses than do large domestic banks and foreign-owned banks, even when controlling for the financial situation of the cooperative banks. Additionally, our results suggest that cooperative banks provide loans to small businesses at lower costs than foreign-owned banks or large domestic banks. Finally, we show that small and medium-sized firms perform better in counties with a large number of cooperative banks than in counties dominated by foreign-owned banks or large domestic banks. Our results are important from a policy perspective, as they show that foreign bank entry and industry consolidation may raise valid concerns for small firms in developing countries. Keywords: small-business lending, cooperative banks, foreign banks, post-transition countries
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Jackowicz, Krzysztof; Kowalewski, Oskar; Kozłowski, Łukasz (2017)
    Journal of Banking and Finance June
    Published in BoF 22/2014.
    This paper investigates the relationship between local banking structures and SMEs’ access to debt and performance. Using a unique dataset on bank branch locations in Poland and firm-, county-, and bank-level data, we conclude that a strong position for local cooperative banks facilitates access to bank financing, lowers financial costs, boosts investments, and favours growth for SMEs. Moreover, counties in which cooperative banks hold a strong position are characterized by a more rapid pace of new firm creation. The opposite effects appear in the majority of cases for local banking markets dominated by foreign-owned banks. Consequently, our findings are important from a policy perspective because they show that foreign bank entry and industry consolidation may raise valid concerns for SME prospects in emerging economies.
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Jackowicz, Krzysztof; Kowalewski, Oskar; Kozłowski, Łukasz (2013)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 21/2013
    Published in Journal of Banking & Finance, Volume 37, Issue 12, December 2013, Pages 5436–5451
    The Central European banking industry is dominated by foreign-owned banks. During the recent crisis, for the first time since the transition, foreign parent companies were frequently in a worse financial condition than their subsidiaries. This situation created a unique opportunity to study new aspects of market discipline exercised by non-financial depositors. Using a comprehensive data set, we find that the recent crisis did not change the sensitivity of deposit growth rates to accounting risk measures. We establish that depositors' actions were more strongly influenced by negative press rumors concerning parent companies than by fundamentals. The impact of rumors was especially perceptible when rumors turned out ex post to be founded. Additionally, we document that public aid announcements were primarily interpreted by depositors as confirmation of a parent company's financial distress. Our results, indicating that depositors react rationally to sources of information other than financial statements, have policy implications, as depositor discipline is usually the only viable and universal source of market discipline for banks in emerging economies. JEL classification: G21; G28. Keywords: depositor behavior; market discipline; crisis; emerging markets; market rumors
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Jackowicz, Krzysztof; Kowalewski, Oskar; Kozłowski, Łukasz (2014)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 2/2014
    Published in Communist and Post-Communist Studies, Volume 50, Issue 4, December 2017, Pages 245–261
    This study investigates the relationship between politically connected firms and their access to bank financing in a post-communist eras in Poland. Overall, it finds that "recent" political connections do influence access to bank financing and the value of such connections increased during the financial crisis. However, it also observes that the positive relationship mentioned above is substantially weaker in Poland relative to other emerging countries and we attribute this phenomenon to the instability of the Polish political climate. Keywords: political connections, bank financing, global financial crisis JEL: GO1, G18, G32
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Jackowicz, Krzysztof; Kowalewski, Oskar; Kozlowski, Lukasz (2017)
    Communist and Post-Communist Studies 4
    Published in BOFIT DP 2/2014.
    This paper characterizes politically connected firms and their access to bank financing. We determine that the relationship between political connections and access to long-term bank loans is weaker in Poland than in other emerging economies. The most probable explanation for this result is related to the instability of the political climate in Poland. We find that only certain kinds of political connections, such as recent connections, positively influenced access to bank financing during the sample period from 2001 to 2011. Moreover, we obtain also some evidence that the value of political connections increased during the 2007 crisis period and onward.
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Jackowicz, Krzysztof; Kowalewski, Oskar; Kozłowski, Łukasz (2019)
    Regional Studies 5
    This study analyzes the economic consequences of changes in the local bank presence. Using a unique data set of banks, firms and counties in Poland over the period 2009–14, it is shown that changes strengthening the relationship banking model are associated with local labour market improvements and easier small and medium-sized enterprise access to bank debt. However, only the appearance of new, more aggressive owners of large commercial banks stimulates new firm creation.