Browsing by Subject "O52"

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  • Gulan, Adam; Haavio, Markus; Kilponen, Juha (2021)
    Journal of International Economics July
    Published in BoF DP 9/2019 http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:bof-201906051219
    We study the macroeconomic consequences of a major trade disruption using the example of the Finnish–Soviet trade collapse in 1991. This is a rare case of a well–identified large trade shock in a developed economy. We find that the shock significantly affected Finnish output. Even so, the trade collapse was insufficient to generate an all–out crisis, and accounts for only a part of the Finnish Great Depression (1990–1993). We show that shocks originating domestically played a major role throughout the depression.
  • Crowley, Patrick M.; Lee, Jim (2005)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 12/2005
    This article analyses the frequency components of European business cycles using real GDP by employing multiresolution decomposition (MRD) with the use of maximal overlap discrete wavelet transforms (MODWT).Static wavelet variance and correlation analysis is performed, and phasing is studied using co-correlation with the euro area by scale.Lastly dynamic conditional correlation GARCH models are used to obtain dynamic correlation estimates by scale against the EU to evaluate synchronicity of cycles through time. The general findings are that euro area members fall into one of three categories: i) high and dynamic correlations at all frequency cycles (eg France, Belgium, Germany), ii) low static and dynamic correlations, with little sign of convergence occurring (eg Greece), and iii) low static correlation but convergent dynamic correlations (eg Finland and Ireland). Key words: business cycles, growth cycles, European Union, multiresolution analysis, wavelets, co-correlation, dynamic correlation JEL Classification numbers: C65, E32, O52
  • Égert, Balázs; Leonard, Carol S. (2007)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 9/2007
    Published in Open Economies Review, Volume 19, Issue 2, April 2008, Pages 147-165
    In this paper we explore the evidence that would establish that Dutch disease is at work in, or poses a threat to, the Kazakh economy.Assessing the mechanism by which fluctuations in the price of oil can damage non-oil manufacturing-and thus long-term growth prospects in an economy that relies heavily on oil production-we find that non-oil manufacturing has so far been spared the perverse effects of oil price increases from 1996 to 2005.The real exchange rate in the open sector has appreciated over the last couple of years, largely due to the appreciation of the nominal exchange rate.We analyze to what extent this appreciation is linked to movements in oil prices and oil revenues.Econometric evidence from the monetary model of the exchange rate and a variety of real exchange rate models show that the rise in the price of oil and in oil revenues might be linked to an appreciation of the U.S. dollar exchange rate of the oil and non-oil sectors.But appreciation is mainly limited to the real effective exchange rate for oil sector and is statistically insignificant for non-oil manufacturing.Key words: price level, inflation, Balassa-Samuelson, tradables, house prices, regulated prices, Europe, transition JEL codes: E43, E50, E52, C22, G21, O52
  • Funke, Michael; Ruhwedel, Ralf (2003)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 8/2003
    Published in Economics of Transition vol 13, no 1 (2005), pp. 25-50
    Utilising panel data for 14 East European transition economies, we find support for the hypothesis that a greater degree of export variety relative to the U.S. helps to explain relative per capita GDP levels.The empirical work relies upon some direct measures of product variety calculated from 5-digit OECD trade data.Although the issue is far from settled, the emerging view is that the index of relative export variety across countries correlates significantly with relative per capita income levels. Keywords: Product Variety, Transition Economies, Eastern Europe, Economic Growth, Panel Data JEL classification: C33, F43, O31, O33, O52.
  • Gulan, Adam; Haavio, Markus; Kilponen, Juha (2014)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 24/2014
    We investigate the causes of the Finnish Great Depression, 1990-1993. We find that the collapse of the overheated financial and banking sectors starting in 1989 was the trigger of the economic crisis. Foreign shocks, which include the collapse of trade with USSR in 1991, can account for at most about half of the slump, and these shocks occurred only when the economy was already in free fall. Also, the deleveraging and restructuring process of the financial system substantially prolonged the subsequent recovery. Our methodology involves estimating a structural VAR model with sign and exogeneity restrictions. Importantly, we are able to distinguish between financial shocks affecting the demand for intermediated loans and those shifting the loan supply curve. Hence we also contribute to the discussion on which financial shocks actually matter. Keywords: business cycles, great depressions, financial shocks, sign restrictions, Finland
  • Bozkaya, Ant; Kerr, William R. (2013)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 30/2013
    Published in Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, Volume 23, Issue 4, 1 December 2014: 776-810
    European nations substitute between employment protection regulations and labor market expenditures (e.g., unemployment insurance benefits) for providing worker insurance. Employment regulations more directly tax firms making frequent labor adjustments than other labor market insurance mechanisms. Venture capital investors are especially sensitive to these labor adjustment costs. Nations favoring labor market expenditures as the mechanism for providing worker insurance developed stronger venture capital markets over 1990-2008, especially in high volatility sectors. In this context, policy mechanisms are more important than the overall level of worker insurance. JEL Classification: G24, J21, J65, L26, M13, O31, O32, O52. Key Words: employment protection regulations, dismissal costs, unemployment insurance benefits, private equity, venture capital, entrepreneurship.
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Koetter, Michael; Wedow, Michael (2009)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 13/2009
    Published in Journal of Banking & Finance, Volume 33, Issue 8, August 2009: 1446-1453
    In this study, we test whether regional growth in 11 European countries depends on financial development and suggest the use of cost- and profit-efficiency estimates as quality measures for financial institutions. Contrary to the usual quantitative proxies for financial development, the quality of financial institutions is measured in this study as the relative ability of banks to intermediate funds. An improvement in bank efficiency spurs five times more regional growth than does an identical increase in credit. More credit provided by efficient banks exerts an independent growth effect in addition to the direct quantity and quality channel effects. Keywords: bank performance, regional growth, bank efficiency, Europe JEL classification numbers: G21, O16, O47, O52
  • Funke, Michael; Strulik, Holger (2003)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 10/2003
    Published in Published in Finnish Economic Papers vol 19, no 1 (2006), pp. 25-38
    This paper analyses the long-run effects of Estonia s 2000 Income Tax Act with a dynamic general equilibrium model.Specifically, we consider the impact of the shift from an imputation system to one where companies only pay taxes on distributed profits.Balanced growth paths, transitional dynamics and welfare costs are computed. Our results indicate that the 2000 Income Tax Act leads to higher per capita income and investment, but lower welfare.A sensitivity analysis shows the results are rather robust. Keywords: growth, welfare, taxation, tax reform, Estonia JEL Classification: H25, H32, O41, O52
  • Nivorozhkin, Eugene (2003)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 2/2003
    Published in Economics of Planning vol 37, no 1 (2004), pp. 25-45
    This paper uses a dynamic unrestricted capital structure model to examine the determinants of the private companies' target financial leverage and the speed of adjustment to it in two transition economies, the Czech Republic and Bulgaria.We explicitly model the adjustment of companies' leverage to a target leverage, and this target leverage is itself explained by a set of factors.The panel data methodology combines cross-section and time-series information.The results indicate that the Bulgarian corporate credit markets were less supply constrained than those of the Czech Republic during the period under investigation.Bulgarian companies adjusted much faster to the target leverage than Czech firms.The speed of adjustment related positively to the distance between target and observed ratio for Bulgarian companies while the relationship was neutral for Czech companies.The conservative policies of Czech banks and the exposure control were likely responsible for the slower adjustment among the larger companies while the opposite were true for Bulgarian banks and companies. G30, G32, O12, O52 capital structure; leverage; dynamic adjustment model; the Czech Republic; Bulgaria
  • Schmiedel, Heiko (2002)
    Bank of Finland. Discussion papers 11/2002
    This paper examines progressive changes in productivity of the European stock exchange industry using non-parametric frontier techniques.Within the framework of Malmquist indices, total factor productivity growth is decomposed into technological progress and technical efficiency change for a balanced panel of all major European stock exchanges over the period 1993-1999.The principal findings indicate an overall rise in productivity over the sample period, which is driven more by technological innovation than by efficiency improvements.According to organisational setup, technological innovation is more pronounced for exchanges with the following characteristics: automation, equity and derivatives trading, for-profit governance structure, large or medium-size capitalised markets.Technological progress can be interpreted as a sign of the dynamic nature of the whole exchange industry, in which stock exchanges take advantage of intense diffusion of new cost-effective technologies and information systems to leverage themselves onto a higher production frontier.Key words: stock exchanges, productivity, technological progress, Europe JEL classification numbers: D24, G29, C23, O52
  • Pyyhtiä, Ilmo (2007)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 3/2007
    This paper builds on the literature on growth in searching for explanations for the divergent growth performance between the EU countries and the United States.We emphasise the role of R&D investment and perhaps different degrees of elasticity of substitution between capital and labour.We estimate two different production functions, namely Cobb-Douglas and CES specifications, with physical capital, a measure of labour, and residual 'technical trend' as inputs.Our first finding is that in many ICT-producing and using countries such as Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden and the United States technical progress has been accelerating during the past decade.Secondly, this speeding up of technical progress has been associated with R&D investment and perhaps with increasing elasticity of substitution between capital and labour.Hence, our results suggest that there is no growth paradox in Europe: the R&D factor and the elasticity of substitution between capital and labour which have been known to be important factors of economies' growth potential, actually explain a significant part of the divergent growth performance of the European economies as well. Keywords: endogenous growth, panel data estimation, production function, R&D, technical progress, elasticity of substitution JEL classification numbers: E22, E23, O51, O52