Browsing by Author "Ongena, Steven"

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  • Newton, David P.; Ongena, Steven; Xie, Ru; Zhao, Binru (2022)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 5/2022
    Is bank- versus market-based financing different in its attitudes towards Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) risk? Using a novel sample covering 3,783 U.S. public firms from 2007 to 2020, we study how firm-level ESG risk affects its financing outcomes. We find that companies with higher ESG risk borrow less from banks than from markets, potentially to avoid bank monitoring and scrutiny. The Social and Governance components, in particular, matter. Furthermore, firms suffering higher numbers of negative ESG reputation shocks are less likely to continue to rely on bank credit in response to lenders' threats to end the lending arrangements. Finally, our results indicate that firms' ESG risk reduces after borrowing from banks but increases after bond issuance, suggesting that banks are more effective than public bond markets in shaping borrowers' ESG performance.
  • Delis, Manthos D.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Ongena, Steven (2020)
    Journal of Financial Economics 2 ; May
    Published in Bank of Finland Discussion Paper 18/2018 "Democratic development and credit".
    Does democratization reduce the cost of credit? Using global syndicated loan data from 1984 to 2014, we find that democratization has a sizable negative effect on loan spreads: a 1-point increase in the zero-to-ten Polity IV index of democracy shaves at least 19 basis points off spreads, but likely more. Reversals to autocracy hike spreads more strongly. Our findings are robust to the comprehensive inclusion of relevant controls, to the instrumentation with regional waves of democratization, and to a battery of other sensitivity tests. We thus highlight the lower cost of loans as one relevant mechanism through which democratization can affect economic development.
  • Delis, Manthos D.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Ongena, Steven (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 18/2018
    Does democratization reduce the cost of credit? Using global syndicated loan data from 1984 to 2014, we find that democratization has a sizeable negative effect on loan spreads: a one-point increase in the zero-to-ten Polity IV index of democracy shaves at least 19 basis points off spreads, but likely more. Reversals to autocracy hike spreads more strongly. Our findings are robust to the comprehensive inclusion of relevant controls, to the instrumentation with regional waves of democratization, and to a battery of other sensitivity tests. We thus highlight the lower cost of loans as one relevant mechanism through which democratization can affect economic development.
  • Degryse, Hans; Lu, Liping; Ongena, Steven (2013)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 14/2013
    The recent financial crisis has reopened the debate on the impact of informal and formal finance on firm growth in developing countries. Using unique survey data, we find that in-formal finance is associated with higher sales growth for small firms and lower sales growth for large firms. We identify a complementary effect between informal and formal finance for the sales growth of small firms, but not for large firms. Informal finance offers informational and monitoring advantages, while formal finance offers relatively inexpensive funds. Co-funding, i.e. the simultaneous use of formal and informal finance, is the optimal choice for small firms. Key words: informal finance, formal finance, co-funding, growth JEL Codes: G21, G32, P2
  • He, Qing; Lu, Liping; Ongena, Steven (2015)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 1/2015
    ​Who gains from inter-corporate credit? To answer this question we investigate the reactions of the stock prices of both the issuing and receiving firms to the announcements of 719 inter-corporate loans that took place between 2005 and 2012 in China. We find that the average abnormal return for the issuers of inter-corporate loans is significantly negative, whereas the corresponding return for those firms receiving credit is positive. Investors may worry that issuing firms may have run out of other worthwhile projects to finance, while at the same time they may view credit-receiving firms as being certified as worthy borrowers. The issuance of intra-group loans, especially those with higher interest rates, is associated with lower returns overall since such loans may signal a spreading of financial distress to the rest of the group. After issuing inter-corporate loans, firms are also found to have lower accounting performance, which confirms the aforementioned signaling interpretation.