Browsing by Subject "P34"

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  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Hanousek, Jan (2006)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 14/2006
    This paper deals with the relationship between mass privatization and stock market development in transition economies.The link is investigated empirically using a panel of data that includes most transition countries.Our results confirm the hypothesis that mass privatization exerted a negative influence on stock market functioning over the short and medium term.Further, it appears that stock markets in countries with mass privatization were initially perceived as mere byproducts of the privatization process.Such stock markets typically not only failed in their core mission of providing capital for the corporate sector, but generated negative investor sentiment and did little to catalyze economic growth. JEL Classifications: G15, G28, P34 Keywords: privatization, mass privatization, emerging stock markets, stock market
  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Weill, Laurent (2014)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 8/2014
    Financial inclusion contributes to economic growth and poverty reduction. We examine financial inclusion levels in twelve Asian countries. To do so, we utilize data from the World Bank Global Findex database for 2011. We find large cross-country differences for the three main indicators of financial inclusion (ownership of a bank account, savings on a bank account, use of bank credit) and observe that ownership of a bank account is more common in high-income countries. However, the pattern of financial inclusion in terms of saving on a bank account or using formal credit differs across countries and is not related to per capita income. There are nonetheless major similarities in the motives for financial exclusion and in the alternative sources of borrowing in Asian countries. Voluntary financial exclusion is more prominent than involuntary exclusion, the main reason being lack of money. We also find that borrowing from family or friends is the most common way of obtaining credit and that relying on alternative private lenders is quite limited.
  • Karas, Alexei; Schoors, Koen; Weill, Laurent (2008)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 3/2008
    Published in Economics of Transition Vol 18, Issue 1 (January 2010), pp. 123-141
    We study whether bank efficiency is related to bank ownership in Russia. We find that foreign banks are more efficient than domestic private banks and - surprisingly - that domes-tic private banks are not more efficient than domestic public banks. These results are not driven by the choice of production process, the bank's environment, management's risk preferences. the bank's activity mix or size, or the econometric approach. The evidence in fnicl suggests that domestic public banks arc more efficient than domestic private banks and that the efficiency gap between these two ownership types did not narrow after the introduction of deposit insurance in 2004. This may be due to increased switching costs or to the moral hazard effects of deposit insurance. The policy conclusion is that the efficiency of the Russian banking system may benefit more from increased levels of competition and greater access of foreign banks than from bank privatization. JEL classification: G21; P30; P34; P52 Keywords: Bank efficiency; state ownership; foreign ownership; Russia
  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Godlewski, Christophe J.; Weill, Laurent (2009)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 7/2009
    Published in Eastern European Economics Vol. 49, no. 1, Jan.-Feb. 2011, pp. 13-30.
    This paper considers whether local bank participation exerts an impact on the spreads for syndicated loans in Russia. Following Berger, Klapper and Udell (2001), we test whether local banks possess a superior ability to deal with information asymmetries. Using a sample of 528 syndicated loans to Russian borrowers, we perform regressions of the spread on a set of variables including information on local bank participation and the characteristics of loans and borrowers. Unlike earlier studies, we distinguish foreign banks with a local presence from those without such presence. The intuition here is that a local presence may influence a foreign bank's monitoring ability and access to information about borrowers. We observe no significant impact on the spread when there is local bank participa-tion in a syndicated loan, nor do we find any significant influence of the presence of domestic-owned banks or foreign-owned banks on the spread. Additional estimations considering subsamples with exacerbated information asymmetries provide similar results. Therefore our conclusion is that local banks do not benefit from an advantage in monitoring ability and in information in Russia. JEL Codes : G21, P34. Keywords : Bank, Information asymmetry, Loan, Syndication, Russia
  • Mamonov, Mikhail; Vernikov, Andrei (2015)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 22/2015
    Published in Economic Systems, Volume 41, Issue 2, June 2017, Pages 305–319 as Bank ownership and cost efficiency: New empirical evidence from Russia.
    This paper considers the comparative efficiency of public, private, and foreign banks in Rus-sia, a transition economy with several unusual features. We perform stochastic frontier anal-ysis (SFA) of Russian bank-level quarterly data over the period 2005–2013. The method of computation of comparative cost efficiency is amended to control for the effect of revalua-tion of foreign currency items in bank balance sheets. Public banks are split into core and other state-controlled banks. Employing the generalized method of moments, we estimate a set of distance functions that measure the observed differences in SFA scores of banks and bank clusters (heterogeneity in risk preference and asset structure) to explain changes in bank efficiency rankings. Our results for comparative Russian bank efficiency show higher efficiency scores, less volatility, and narrower spreads between the scores of different bank types than in previous studies. Foreign banks appear to be the least cost-efficient market participants, while core state banks on average are nearly as efficient as private domestic banks. We suggest that foreign banks gain cost-efficiency when they increase their loans-to-assets ratios above the sample median level. Core state banks, conversely, lead in terms of cost efficiency when their loans-to-assets ratio falls below the sample median level. The presented approach is potentially applicable to analysis of bank efficiency in other dollarized emerging markets.
  • Belousova, Veronika; Karminsky, Alexander; Kozyr, Ilya (2018)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 5/2018
    The paper examines how the type of ownership affects the profit efficiency of Russian banks. Using bank-quarter data for selected banks in the period 2004–2015, we combine stochastic frontier anal-ysis (SFA) methodology with an intermediary approach to assess profit efficiency. Our key findings show that foreign-owned banks are the most efficient, followed by state-owned banks and private domestic banks. We also find that the profit efficiency of foreign-owned banks was higher than that of other banks during the economically stable periods of 2004Q1 to 2008Q2 and 2014Q1 to 2015Q3, and that state-owned banks were more efficient than others in the period of financial turmoil from 2008Q3 to 2013Q4 due to state support. These results are robust when we consider these banks in terms of branch network diversity, risk preferences, and specialization.
  • Bonin, John P.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Wachtel, Paul (2004)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 7/2004
    Published in Journal of Banking & Finance vol. 29, no 1 (2005), pp. 31-53
    Using data from 1996 to 2000, we investigate the effects of ownership, especially by a strategic foreign owner, on bank efficiency for eleven transition countries in an unbalanced panel consisting of 225 banks and 856 observations.Applying stochastic frontier estimation procedures, we compute profit and cost efficiency scores taking account of both time and country effects directly.In second-stage regressions, we take these efficiency measures along with return on assets as dependent variables with dummy variables for ownership type, a variable controlling for bank size, and dummy variables for year and country effects as explanatory variables.Methodologically, our results demonstrate the importance of including fixed effects, especially country effects, and also suggest a preference for efficiency measures over financial measures of bank performance in empirical work on transition countries. With respect to the impact of ownership, we conclude that privatization by itself is not sufficient to increase bank efficiency as government-owned banks are not appreciably less efficient than domestic private banks.Our results do support the hypothesis that foreign ownership leads to more efficient banks in transition countries.We find that foreign-owned banks are more cost-efficient than other banks and that they also provide better service, in particular if they have a strategic foreign owner. Moreover, the participation of international institutional investors is shown to have a considerable additional positive impact on profit efficiency, which is consistent with the notion that these investors facilitate the transfer of technology and know how to newly privatized banks.In addition, we find that the remaining government-owned banks are less efficient in providing services, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the better banks were privatized first in transition countries.Finally, efficiency declines with bank size, which could call into question government-orchestrated bank consolidation strategies.We conjecture that the presence of many small and efficient foreign greenfield operations in these transition countries may be responsible for this result. JEL Classifications: P30, P34, P52.
  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Jakubik, Petr (2012)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 3/2012
    Published in Czech Journal of Economics and Finance, Volume 63, Issue 1, pages 87-105, 2013
    The recent financial crisis emphasised the need for effective financial stability analyses and tools for detecting systemic risk. This paper looks at assessment of banking sector resilience through stress testing. We argue such analyses are valuable even in emerging economies that suffer from limited data availability, short time series and structural breaks. We propose a top-down stress test methodology that employs relatively limited information to overcome this data problem. Moreover, as credit growth in emerging economies tends to be rather volatile, we rely on dynamic approach projecting key balance sheet items. Application of our proposed stress test framework to the Russian banking sector reveals a high sensitivity of the capital adequacy ratio to the economic cycle that shows up in both of the two-year macroeconomic scenarios considered: a baseline and an adverse one. Both scenarios indicate the need for capital increase in the Russian banking sector. Furthermore, given that Russia's banking sector is small and fragmented relative to advanced economies, the loss of external financing can cause profound economic stress, especially for medium-sized and small enterprises. The Russian state has a low public debt-to-GDP ratio and plays decisive role in the banking sector. These factors allow sufficient fiscal space for recapitalisation of problematic banks under both of our proposed baseline and adverse scenarios. Keywords: stress testing, bank, Russia JEL Classification: G28, P34, G21
  • Bonin, John; Hasan, Iftekhar; Wachtel, Paul (2008)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 12/2008
    Katso myös DP 8/2014.
    Modern banking institutions were virtually non-existent in the planned economies of cen-tral Europe and the former Soviet Union. In the early transition period, banking sectors began to develop during several years of macroeconomic decline and turbulence accompa-nied by repeated bank crises. However, governments in many transition countries learned from these tumultuous experiences and eventually dealt successfully with the accumulated bad loans and lack of strong bank regulation. In addition, rapid progress in bank privatiza-tion and consolidation took place in the late 1990s and early 2000s, usually with the partic-ipation of foreign banks. By 2005, the banking sectors in many transition countries had developed sufficiently to provide a wide range of services with solid bank performance. Recently, banks have switched their focus from lending to enterprises in a somewhat un-derdeveloped institutional environment to new collateralized lending to households, which accounts for much of the recent growth of credit in many transition countries. Keywords: transition banking, bank privatization, foreign banks, bank regulation, credit growth. JEL codes: G21, P30, P34, P52
  • Karas, Alexei; Pyle, William; Schoors, Koen (2019)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 10/2019
    Using evidence from Russia, we explore the effect of the introduction of deposit insurance on bank risk. Drawing on within-bank variation in the ratio of firm deposits to total household and firm deposits, so as to capture the magnitude of the decrease in market discipline after the introduction of deposit insurance, we demonstrate for private, domestic banks that larger declines in market discipline generate larger increases in traditional measures of risk. These results hold in a difference-in-difference setting in which state and foreign-owned banks, whose deposit insurance regime does not change, serve as a control.
  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Poghosyan, Tigran (2009)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 22/2009
    Published in Economic Systems 35 (2011) pp. 481-495.
    This paper analyzes interest margin determinants in the Russian banking sector with a particular emphasis on the bank ownership structure. Using a unique bank-level data covering Russia's entire banking sector for the 1999-2007 period, we find that the impact of a number of commonly used determinants such as market structure, credit risk, liquidity risk and size of operations differs across state-controlled, domestic-private and foreign-owned banks. At the same time, the influence of operational costs and bank risk aversion is homogeneous across ownership groups. The results overall suggest the form of bank ownership needs to be considered when analyzing interest margin determinants. JEL classification: G21, P34 Keywords: bank interest margins, financial intermediation, Russia
  • Bonin, John P.; Louie, Dana (2015)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 31/2015
    Our objective is to examine empirically the behavior of foreign banks regarding real loan growth during a financial crisis for a set of countries in which these banks dominate the banking sectors due primarily to having taken over large existing former state-owned banks. The eight countries are among the most developed in Emerging Europe, their banking sectors having been modernized by the beginning of the time period.We consider a data period that includes an initial credit boom (2004 – 2007) followed by the global financial crisis (2008 & 2009) and the onset of the Eurozone crisis (2010). Our main innovations with respect to the existing literature on banking during the financial crisis are to include explicit consideration of exchange rate dynamics and to separate foreign banks into two categories, namely, subsidiaries of the Big 6 European MNBs and all other foreign-controlled banks. Our results show that bank lending was impacted adversely by the crisis but that the two types of foreign banks behaved differently. The Big 6 banks remained committed to the region in that their lending behavior was not different from that of domestic banks corroborating the notion that these countries are a “second home market” for these banks. Contrariwise, the other foreign banks were primarily responsible for fueling the credit boom prior to the crisis but then “cut and ran” by decreasing their lending appreciably during the crisis. Our results also indicate different bank behavior in countries with flexible exchange rate regimes from those in the Eurozone. Hence, we conclude that both innovations matter in empirical work on bank behavior during a crisis in the region and may, by extension, be relevant to other small countries in which banking sectors are dominated by foreign financial institutions.
  • Pessarossi, Pierre; Weill, Laurent (2012)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 21/2012
    Published in Journal of Economics and Business, Volume 70, November–December 2013, Pages 27–42
    We study the consequences of CEO turnover announcements on the stock prices of firms in China, where most listed firms remain majority-owned by the state. Our proposition is that state ownership may affect stock market reaction to CEO replacement because state-owned firms often pursue multiple, potentially contradictory, objectives, i.e. economic performance and social objectives. Applying standard event study methodology to a sample of 1,094 announcements from 2002 to 2010, we find that CEO turnover typically produces a positive stock market reaction. The reaction is significantly positive, however, only for enterprises owned by the central government, and not significant for enterprises owned by local governments or privately owned enterprises. These results suggest that a CEO turnover in a central state-owned enterprise signals a renewed commitment to the economic performance objective by state officials. The small size of CEO labor market suggests that other shareholders have a relatively small pool of CEO talent to proceed to managerial improvement when a CEO turnover takes place. JEL Classification: G30; M51; P34; O16 Keywords: CEO turnover; corporate governance; state ownership; China; event study
  • Klein, Paul-Olivier; Weill, Laurent (2015)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 33/2015
    Published in Economics of Transition and Institutional Change, 26, 3, July 2018, 363–399 as "Bond offerings in China"
    There has been a considerable expansion of corporate bond markets in China in the recent years. The objective of this study is to examine the stock market reaction following bond issuance by Chinese companies. In addition to analyzing for positive or negative reactions to bond issues, we consider the influences of ownership and management characteristics on the stock market reaction. Applying an event-study methodology to a sample of 481 bond issues of 347 Chinese companies over the period 2009–2013, the univariate results show that Chinese bond issues typically generate a positive stock market reaction. The reaction is only significantly positive, however, in the case of central state-owned companies (as opposed to those owned by local or provincial governments). The multivariate results indicate that insider ownership influences stock market reaction to a bond issue, while management characteristics have no discernable impact.
  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Korhonen, Iikka (2011)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 32/2011
    This paper provides an overview of the Chinese banking sector, which has expanded tremendously over the past two decades. We first describe aggregate developments of the sector and compare them to the situation in other countries. Also, various financial institutions that operate in China are analyzed. Our results confirm that the Chinese banking sector is truly in a class of its own, especially given the level of China's economic development. Despite significant reforms, the state and various public organizations still own controlling shares in the largest commercial banks. The state is also present on the borrowers' side; it is estimated that about half of state-owned commercial bank lending still goes to state-controlled companies. In this way, the banking system can serve as an important policy tool. Another distinctive feature of the Chinese banking sector is the variety of its banking institutions. New types of banking institutions, especially those serving rural areas, are emerging all the time. While equity and debt markets are still tiny relative to the banking sector and their importance as sources of financing of investment remain minor, they have evolved rapidly in recent years. JEL: G28, P34, G21 Keywords: China, banking sector, state banks
  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Schoors, Koen; Solanko, Laura; Weill, Laurent (2020)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 8/2020
    State-owned banks tend to increase lending before elections for the purpose of boosting the reelection odds of incumbent politicians. We employ monthly data on individual banks to study whether Russian banks increased their lending before presidential elections during 2004–2019, a period covering four presidential elections. In contrast to the literature, we find that both state-owned and private banks increased their lending before presidential elections. This result stands for all loans, as well as separately for firm and household loans. The pre-election lending surge is followed by a deterioration of loan quality the following year, indicating the lending increase was not driven by higher growth prospects or some positive economic shock. The effect is substantially greater for large banks and banks more involved in lending activities. Our main finding that all types of banks in Russia increase their lending before presidential elections supports the view that the authorities in an electoral autocracy like Russia can influence lending of both private and state-owned banks for political reasons.
  • Bonin, John P.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Wachtel, Paul (2004)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 8/2004
    Published in Journal of Banking and Finance, (29), August-September 2005, pp. 2153-78 as "Privatization Matters: Bank Performance in Transition Countries"
    To investigate the impact of bank privatization in transition countries, we take the largest banks in six relatively advanced countries, namely, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Croatia, Hungary, Poland and Romania.Income and balance sheet characteristics are compared across four bank ownership types.Efficiency measures are computed from stochastic frontiers and used in ownership and privatization regressions having dummy variables for bank type.Our empirical results support the hypotheses that foreign-owned banks are most efficient and government-owned banks are least efficient. In addition, the importance of attracting a strategic foreign owner in the privatization process is confirmed.However, counter to the conjecture that foreign banks cream skim, we find that domestic banks have a local advantage in pursuing fee-for-service business. Finally, we show that both the method and the timing of privatization matter to efficiency; specifically, voucher privatization does not lead to increased efficiency and early-privatized banks are more efficient than later-privatized banks even though we find no evidence of a selection effect.JEL Classifications: P30, P34, and P52
  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Solanko, Laura (2008)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 21/2008
    Published in HSE Economic Journal, 2009, Tom 13, Vol 1, 101–129
    The Russian banking sector has experienced enormous growth rates during the last 6-7 years. The rapid growth of assets has, however, contributed to a decrease in the capital adequacy ratio, thus influencing the ability of banks to cope with risk. Using quarterly data spanning from 1999 to 2007 on all Russian banks, we investigate the relationship between bank characteristics and risk-taking by Russian banks. The analysis of financial ratios reveals that, on average, the risk levels are still below those observed in Central and Eastern Europe. Combining the group-wise comparisons of financial ratios and the results of insolvency risk analysis based on fixed effects vector decomposition, three main conclusions emerge. First, controlling for bank characteristics, large banks have higher insolvency risk than small ones. Second, foreign-owned banks exhibit higher insolvency risk than domestic banks and large state-controlled banks are, unlike other state-controlled banks, more stable. Third, we find that the regional banks engage in significantly more risk-taking than their counterparts in Moscow. JEL Classification: G21, G32, P34 Keywords: bank risk-taking, banks in transition, Russia
  • Vernikov, Andrei V. (2007)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 5/2007
    This paper applies an analytical paradigm of institutional economics to the transition of the Russian banking sector, focusing on the interplay between ownership change and institutional change. We find that the state's withdrawal from commercial banking has been inconsistent and limited in scope.To this day, core banks have yet to be privatized and the state has made a comeback as owner of the dominant market participants.We also look at the new institutions imported into Russia to regulate banking and finance, including rule of law, competition, deposit insurance, bankruptcy, and corporate governance.The unfortunate combination of this new institutional overlay and traditional local norms of behavior have brought Russia to an impasse - the banking sector's ownership structure hinders further advancement of market institutions. Indeed, we may now be witnessing is a retreat from the original market-based goals of transition.Key words: banking sector reform, privatization, Russia, economic transition, institutional economics JEL: G21, G28, P34, P37
  • Schoors, Koen; Weill, Laurent (2017)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 17/2017
    We investigate whether lending by the dominant Russian state bank, Sberbank, contributed to Vladimir Putin’s ascent to power during the presidential elections of March 2000. Our hypothesis is that Sberbank corporate loans could have been used as incentives for managers at private firms to mobilize employees to vote for the incumbent regime. In line with our proposed voter mobilization mechanism, we find that the regional growth of Sberbank corporate loans in the months before the presidential election is related to the regional increase in votes for Putin and to the regional increase in voter turnout between the Duma election of December 1999 and the presidential election of March 2000. The effect of Sberbank firm lending on Putin votes was most pronounced in regions where the governor was affiliated with the regime and in regions with extensive private employment. The effect was less apparent in regions with many single-company towns, where voter intimidation is sufficient to get the required result. Additional robustness checks and placebo regressions confirm the main findings. Our results support the view that additional Sberbank corporate loans granted prior to the March 2000 presidential election facilitated Putin’s early electoral success.