Browsing by Author "Popova, Tatiana"

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  • Popova, Tatiana; Tekoniemi, Merja (1998)
    IDÄNTALOUKSIEN KATSAUKSIA. REVIEW OF ECONOMIES IN TRANSITION 1/1998
    Tax revenues constitute the main source of public sector funding for most countries.Russia's complex and ineffective tax system has hindered its economy and led to significant decrease in tax revenues.The new Tax Code approved in summer 1997 in the first reading of the Russian Duma was designed to remedy many of the problems with the current tax system.Its main objectives were to ensure simplification of the tax system, restoration of tax discipline, stimulation of production and protection of adequate tax revenues.Subsequently, there has been much discussion as to whether these objectives can be achieved by the proposed Tax Code draft, and thousands of amendments have been proposed.The discussion has centered around income and enterprise taxation, i.e areas where Russian practice differs considerably from other countries.Traditionally, income taxation in Russia has been a minor contributor to state revenues, while enterprise taxation has been a considerable contributor.According to the hypothetical calculations of the Tax Code Tax draft, federal and regional tax revenues as a share of GDP will decline, while revenues from extrabudgetary funds will increase.The aggregate tax burden should decrease from approximately 35.1% to 32.4% of GDP.These estimates are based on the assumption that GDP starts to grow and tax discipline is better enforced.This is the core of the tax reform and a key element in the success of Russia's economic reform as a whole. Keywords: Russia, taxation
  • Popova, Tatiana (1998)
    IDÄNTALOUKSIEN KATSAUKSIA. REVIEW OF ECONOMIES IN TRANSITION 7/1998
    The article provides an overall review of different aspects of financial-industrial groups (FIGs) in Russia.The review first explores the developments during the Russian economic reform that lead to the emergence of FIGs, highlights the legal basis and actual reasons for creating them, and gives an assessment of various elements of the state's policy to promote FIGs.The article further provides aggregate information on and a full register of FIGs created along the official path, and characterises some of the large de facto FIGs that were formed outside official policies and procedures.A judgement to focus the state's FIG policy is also given. Keywords: financial-industrial groups, FIGs, Russian banks, Russian industry, restructuring, oligarchs
  • Popova, Tatiana; Tekoniemi, Merja (1996)
    IDÄNTALOUKSIEN KATSAUKSIA. REVIEW OF ECONOMIES IN TRANSITION 5/1996
    he ungoing economic reform in Russia has in many respects proceeded without taking into consideration the social questions, which, however, are an essential part of the transformation from socialist planning to a market economy.In order to not to exceed the limit, which the most suffering part of the population can bear, it is vital to migitate the negative social consequences of the reform within the budget constraint.In our view it is possible to find a compromise between social and economic problems through priorising the most acute social problems and the most vulnerable groups of people as well as optimising forms and methods of economic reform in order to minimize its social consequences. The study is organised as follows: the chapter one stresses the actuality of questions related to social sector.The chapter two concentrates on statistical problems in analyzing the situation in the Russian social sector.The main social problems - poverty, unemployment, the situation in medicine, culture, science and education as well as the military, political and criminal insecurity - are analyzed in chapter three.The development of the situation in mentioned social spheres has been analyzed mainly in the period of 1992 - 1996 with the emphasis on the years 1995-1996. The chapter four consists of two parts.The first one gives a picture of the regional differences of social problems, which in Russia are large.The other part of the chapter is devoted to classification of Russians into groups according to their incomes and naming the most acute social problems for these groups.As a conclusion a table of the objective and subjective reasons for the critical situation in Russian social sector is presented. Keywords: social sector, poverty, unemployment, medicine, culture, science, education, criminality, Russia
  • Popova, Tatiana (1997)
    IDÄNTALOUKSIEN KATSAUKSIA. REVIEW OF ECONOMIES IN TRANSITION 4/1997
    Numerous economic and social problems emerging from transition in Russia highlight the nearsightedness of current economic reform policies.Moves such as liberation of culture from direct state control are clearly for the better, but overall, the reforms have had a negative impact on Russian cultural life. The study is organized as follows: section one describes the actuality of analysis of the impact economic reform in Russia has had on culture and the fine arts.Section two looks at the denationalization effects on culture and patronage issues.Section three describes a vicious circle that has led to "cultural goods" of poor quality.Problems of education in transitional period are analyzed in section four.The conclusion is devoted to analysis of official views of cultural consequences of economic reforms in Russia.