Browsing by Subject "Ruotsi"

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  • Honkapohja, Seppo (2009)
    EURO & TALOUS 1
    Meneillään oleva rahoituskriisi on nyt kestänyt runsaan vuoden. Sodanjälkeisenä aikana nykyinen kriisi on kehittyneiden talouksien 19:s ja tämän vuosisadan ensimmäinen. Tuoreessa tutkimuksessaan Carmen Reinhard ja Kenneth Rogoff (2008) ovat jaotelleet tämänhetkistä Yhdysvaltain subprime-kriisiä edeltäneet 18 kriisiä viiteen suureen ja pienempiin kriiseihin. Viiteen suureen sisältyvät Norjan, Suomen ja Ruotsin 1990-luvun alkuun ajoittuneet kriisit. Norjan kriisi alkoi jo 1980-luvun lopulla, mutta jatkui 1990-luvulle.
  • Andersen, Kaare Guttorm; Kauko, Karlo (1996)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 13/1996
    The possibilities to improve households' eligibility for long-term housing loans at fixed interest rates has been a current topic of public discussion.Yet, credit institutions have difficulties in granting such loans, unless they themselves can acquire fixed-rate funding.In many cases, the only feasible way for them to raise such funding is to issue bonds.In a number of countries, such arrangements are already in use. In this paper we present a cross-country study of housing finance by mortgagebacked bonds.The paper describes and analyses mortgage credit markets in Denmark, Sweden and the United States of America with respect to the institutional structure, loans and bonds characteristics, legal framework and the security underlying the system.We have found that all three markets differ and that these differences originate from the respective countries' national characteristics and financial histories.In Sweden and the United States in particular, the public sector has been involved in developing the system. Generally, long-term credit is offered in all three countries through relatively well-functioning, efficient markets. However, certain problems are common to all.First, the number of outstanding bond series is relatively large.Second, in many housing loans, the borrower has the option to repay the debt prematurely.In these cases, the credit institution may have to avoid maturity matching problems by issuing bonds with unknown maturity. We briefly review the history and present circumstances of Finnish bond issuing credit institutions to elucidate why such institutions play a marginal role.Long ago, bond-issuing mortgage institutions were an essential part of the Finnish financial market, but legislative obstacles to their operations almost killed the industry after World War II.The tax system favoured ordinary banks, and bond emissions were restricted by government regulations.Now, these legal obstacles have been abolished.In the light of both foreign and past domestic experience, such institutions have a market niche.Finally, we discuss some of the problems related to setting up a bond- financed mortgage credit market in Finland. Key words: Housing loans, bonds, mortgage banks
  • Alhonsuo, Sampo (2017)
    Valvottavien taloudellinen tila ja riskit 31.12.2017
    Suomessa euroalueen alhaisimmat asuntolainakorot jo pitkään Suomi–Ruotsi: Ruotsissa selkeästi korkeammat asuntolainakorot Korkojen nousu ja ennätyksellinen velkaantuminen on huono yhdistelmä
  • Schauman, Heidi (2012)
    Suomen Pankki. BoF online 5/2012
    Tässä selvityksessä tarkastellaan, miten asuntomarkkinat ja kotitalouksien velkaantuneisuus ovat kehittyneet Pohjoismaissa viime vuosina ja vuosikymmeninä. Selvityksen tavoite on luoda käsitys siitä, miten Pohjoismaat eroavat toisistaan ja siitä, onko Suomella jotain opittavaa muista Pohjoismaista. Selvitys käsittelee asuntohintojen, asuntoinvestointien, rakentamisen sekä kotitalouksien velkaantumisen kehitystä. Yhteenvetona voidaan todeta, että Pohjoismaissa asuntohinnat ovat kehittyneet hyvin samansuuntaisesti viime vuosikymmenen aikana. Kehitys heijastaa pääsääntöisesti matalia korkoja ja myönteistä tulokehitystä eikä niinkään rakentamisen niukkuutta, vaikka joissakin maissa ainakin kasvukeskuksissa on ongelmia kaavoittamisen kanssa. Myös lainamarkkinoiden muuttuminen ja yhä vapaamuotoisempien lainojen tulo markkinoille on antanut tukea asuntohintojen nousulle.
  • Suomen Pankki (2018)
    Euro & talous 1/2018
    Ruotsin taloudella menee hyvin. Talouskasvu on vahvaa, ja inflaatio on kevyestä rahapolitiikasta huolimatta lähellä tavoitetta. Julkinen talous on lievästi ylijäämäinen, ja valtionvelka on pieni. Lisäksi Ruotsin vaihtotase on reilusti ylijäämäinen. Asuntojen hinnat ovat nousseet pitkään erityisesti Tukholmassa, Göteborgissa ja Malmössä. Viime syksystä asuntojen hinnat ovat kuitenkin laskeneet noin 10 %. Talouspolitiikan lähiajan haasteisiin kuuluu asuntomarkkinoiden rakenteellisten ongelmien ratkominen.
  • Pesola, Jarmo (2005)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 13/2005
    The macroeconomic determinants of banking sector distresses in the Nordic countries, Belgium, Germany, Greece, Spain and the UK are analysed using an econometric model estimated on panel data from partly the early 1980s to 2002.The dependent variable is the ratio of banks' loan losses to lending.In addition to the lagged dependent variable, the explanatory variables include a surprise change in incomes and real interest rates, both variables as a separate cross-product term with lagged aggregate indebtedness.The underlying macroeconomic account that this paper puts forward is that loan losses are basically generated by strong adverse aggregate shocks under high exposure of banks to such shocks.The underlying innovations to income and real interest rates are constructed using published macro-economic forecast for these variables.According to the results, high customer indebtedness combined with adverse macroeconomic surprise shocks to income and real interest rates contributed to the distress in banking sector. Loan losses also display strong autoregressive behaviour which might indicate a feedback effect from loan losses back to macroeconomic level in deep recessions.The results can be used in macro stresstesting the banking sector. Key words: financial fragility, shock, loan loss, banking crisis JEL Classification numbers: G21, E44
  • Öberg, Svante (2000)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 74 ; 2
  • Pikkarainen, Pentti (2010)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 20/2010
    The paper concentrates on illustrating and assessing central banks liquidity operations during the crisis that started in August 2007. In addition to the ECB, the central banks of Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Australia, Japan, Canada and the United States are analyzed. During the crisis the liquidity operations of central banks have converged. In many cases, central bank balance sheets have undergone extremely strong growth. The actions by central banks raise a number of questions concerning exit from the measures taken, the impact of the measures, central banks risks and their governance structure
  • Malkamäki, Markku (1992)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 16/1992
    This paper examines eointegration and Granger eatisality among the stock markets in the United States, the United Kindom, Germany, Sweden and Finland. The first three nations are the biggest trading partners of the two small open Nordie eeonomies, Finland and Sweden. We apply standard univariate VAR models and a system of VAR models under the assumption of multivariate eointegration, first introdueed in Johansen (1988). Our results from eausality analysis eontradiet the prior understanding with respect to the eausal relations between the Nordie and other stoek markets. Our multivariate eointegration analysis suggests that the stoek markets are cointegrated with one eointegrating veetor when prices are measured in IoeaI eurrencies or in Finnish markkas and two eointegrating vectors when prices are measured in US dollars. The Finnish stoek market is always found to be led by the German market, and aIso by the UK market when returns are measured in IoeaI eurreneies or in Finnish markkas. We also found that the Swedish stoek market is Granger eaused by the UK market instead of the US market as previously suggested. The data covers the period 1974-1989.
  • Kauko, Karlo (2016)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 2/2016
    Nordea Group intends to merge its large subsidiary banks operating in other Nordic countries to the Swedish parent company, which is supervised by the Swedish supervisory authority, Finansinspektionen. The importance of the change for Finland is heightened by Nordea's large market share.
  • Fromlet, Hubert (2014)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 15/2014
    During and after the Central Committee’s Third Plenum in November 2013, China announced far-reaching reforms in the spheres of marketization and economic deregulation that included financial markets. While the speed of the rollout of China’s planned reforms is still unknown, officials repeatedly reference the great opportunities for guiding China onto a healthier, more sustainable social and economic track. The risks of such ambitious marketization and deregulation plans need to be considered in the context of speed and sequencing of reforms of the financial sector. We currently lack the skills for overcoming the famously low predictability of financial crises. The areas for skill improvement largely relate to market psychology (behavioral finance) and the understanding of history and macrofinancial aggregates. The much-undervalued discipline of behavioral finance has started to come into its own over the past 10 to 15 years, including the awarding of the 2013 Nobel Prize Robert in Economics to Robert Shiller for his efforts at understanding the psychology of financial markets. This year’s Nobel Prize winner, Jean Tirole, also considers behavioral aspects in his work. Sweden has had two serious banking crises in the past 30 years. The first – and most serious – crisis occurred in the early 1990s, while a smaller crisis took place at the end of the last decade. Both were foreseeable. The first crisis emerged as Swedish banking entered uncharted deregulation waters, a situation Chinese reformers will themselves inevitably confront. Swedish research findings with respect to sequencing, speed of reforms and behavioral finance apply nicely to the Chinese discussion. The italicized discussion focuses on what the Swedish deregulation experience means for Chinese policy choices, but most of these observations are generally relevant for policymakers in emerging markets in Asia and elsewhere. Publication keywords: financial deregulation, Asia, Sweden
  • Pikkarainen, Pentti (1999)
    EURO & TALOUS 1
    Rahapolitiikan strategialla tarkoitetaan periaatteita, joita keskuspankki noudattaa pyrkiessään saavuttamaan rahapolitiikkansa tavoitteet.Onnistuneelta strategialta edellytetään selkeitä ja julkisia periaatteita ja välineitä, joiden avulla tavoitteisiin pyritään.EKP:n neuvosto päätti ja julkisti eurojärjestelmän rahapolitiikan strategian keskeiset elementit loppuvuodesta 1998.
  • Leinonen, Harry (2009)
    Bank of Finland. Expository studies. A 113
    This publication consists of seven studies on retail payment issues presented as preliminary versions at the annual Bank of Finland Payment Habits Seminar in 2008. Interest in retail payment services has recently been growing at a fast pace among authorities and the general public. For this, there are several reasons: developments in technology, changes in the competitive framework and globalization. Authorities have become increasingly concerned about the efficiency and standardization issues of retail payments. A key topic of research appears to be the extent to which the payment habits of the general public can and should be switched to options that are more efficient for the society as a whole, as well as the means of achieving this. The current marketing setup seems to bias customers against change and to promote the use of legacy solutions and old habits instead of the modern solutions. However, recent trends for change seem to be pointing in new directions for the evolution of payment habits. Keywords: payment services, payment costs and pricing, card payments, electronic and mobile payments JEL classification numbers: G10, G18, F15, H4, L86, 033
  • Åkerholm, Johnny (1988)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 6/1988
    The paper deals with the adjustment problems that small open economies face in a financially integrated world. Particular attention is paid to the assignment of different policy instruments te the achievement different policy targets. It is concluded that the· possibilities to use monetary and fiscal policy instruments are highly dependent on the flexibility of wages and prices. It is, however, likely that monetary policy has to be increasingly geared towards the containment of inflation, while fiscal pol~cy has to secure external balance. The pessibilities to maintain employment is thus largely dependent on wage and price behaviour. The adjustment process of Australia, Denmark and Sweden is analyzed in order to shed some light on the role of the policy mix and to evaluate the importance of wage and price flexibility and the factors which influence the degree of flexibility.
  • Sierimo, Carolina; Virén, Matti (1995)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita; Bank of Finland. Discussion papers 34/1995
    This paper examines the relationships between financial and nonfinancial variables in three Nordic countries (Finland, Norway and Sweden).We try to find out whether there exists some kind of dichotomy between these two sets of variables, both in terms of levels of variables and the respective volatilities.In particular, we scrutinize the role of the stock market (stock prices and stock market turnover) in this respect.The analysis makes use of standard time series analytical tools, cointegration analysis, analysis of Granger causality and cross-spectral analysis.The results of these empirical analyses suggest that, although the behaviour of the financial variables has been quite similar, there are important differences between these three countries.Still, in all countries important relationships between these sets of variables are detected.However, in most cases causality seems to be bidirectional or instantaneous.
  • Vauhkonen, Jukka; Westman, Hanna (2013)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin. Financial stability 2
    The structure of the Finnish banking system is vulnerable, due to the banking system s growing size, high degree of concentration, strong national and Nordic interconnectedness, and the systemic importance of some banking groups. Finnish authorities must be prepared to impose either on all banks or some banks additional capital requirements allowed under the EU s Capital Requirements Directive (CRD).
  • Suomela, Samuli (1958)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 32 ; 4 ; April
  • Savolainen, Eero; Tölö, Eero (2017)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 2/2017
    The Finnish, Swedish, Norwegian and Danish banking sectors have broadly similar strengths and weaknesses. Their profitability is strong, capital adequacy solid, and loan losses have been at historically low levels for a long time. On the other hand, the national banking sectors are large and concentrated and their systemic risks relate largely to lending to the residential and commercial real estate markets.
  • Rantakari, K. N. (1937)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 17 ; 2 ; February
  • Barot, Bharat; Takala, Kari (1998)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 12/1998
    Given the emphasis on price stability in monetary policy, the concern caused by recent rapid increases in housing prices are understandable.It is suspected that such rises may provide early indication of mounting inflationary pressure.The purpose of this paper is to formulate and estimate an error-correction system model for housing prices and inflation for forecasting purposes.By using the estimated cointegrating vector, we also get an estimate of the equilibrium level for house prices that might be helpful in analysing the current situation in the housing market and the stance for monetary policy. Housing prices typically exhibit large cycles, and they are thus predictable to some extent.Volatility is caused by the fact that the supply of houses does not react perfectly to changes in housing demand.However, housing prices and inflation tend to have similar growth rates over the long run.In other words, houses provide a good inflation shelter, but in the long run, the real return to is equal to the explicit or implicit rental income derived from the owning of houses.The estimation results also show that the changes in the general price level are transmitted into house prices rather quickly, but inflation is surprisingly insensitive to housing prices.The equilibrium relationship between housing prices and consumer prices is also affected in the short run by variables such as interest rates, wages and the unemployment rate. Keywords: House prices, inflation, cointegration