Browsing by Author "Snellman, Jussi"

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  • Snellman, Jussi (2000)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 19/2000
    During the 1990s the availability of location-specific retail payment services in Finland declined substantially, but at the same time there was a surge of development of self-service methods. These new methods, which make use eg of mobile phones and the Internet, dramatically increased the availability of payment services that are not tied to location.More traditional forms of payment still exist; for example, the use of cash remains significant.In Europe there are marked differences between countries with respect to the use of different payment methods. Generally, the use of cashless payment instruments has increased during the last ten years, but it seems that payment patterns are still not converging to similar structures. The development of the Finnish retail payment system has long roots, and several factors - eg the salary bank arrangement of the 1960s and the severe banking crisis of the early 1990s - have influenced the development of the current Finnish payment system. In the retail payments area, new technologies are developing rapidly.The success of new forms of payment (based eg on mobile phones) in gaining general acceptance may depend on changes in the nature of consumption.If customer demand increasingly shifts toward virtual goods and services, the demand for new types of payment methods such as electronic money may increase substantially. Keywords: retail payments, electronification, ATMs, Internet banking
  • Snellman, Jussi; Vesala, Jukka (1999)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 8/1999
    This paper examines the electronification of noncash payments in Finland and the extent to which noncash payment means are used as substitutes for cash. We model the processes of cash substitution and electronification of payments as 'S'-shaped learning curves and generate forecasts by extrapolating these curves. The 'S'-shaped learning curves fit the data well. Our results indicate that in Finland the cash substitution process as a whole is approaching the saturation point. Although the electronification process is clearly ongoing as regards larger-value bill payments, for small-value point-of-sale payments we seem to have reached saturation. Electronification of payments, having progressed swiftly and extensively in Finland, is already beginning to slow down. We conclude the paper with a discussion of the reasons for this turn of events and of the different factors that affect the speed of diffusion of new means of payment. Key words: payments, electronification, learning curves
  • Andersén, Atso; Hyytinen, Ari; Snellman, Jussi (2000)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 15/2000
    In this paper we discuss recent developments in the Finnish banking sector.Our specific aim is to examine whether and to what extent recent developments in Finland are broadly in line with the trends common to banking sectors in Europe and also worldwide. We focus on developments in banks' profit and loss accounts, balance sheets and the market structure of the banking sector.In addition, technological developments are surveyed.As regards consolidation, the Finnish banking sector is a trendsetter.The emphasis in structural development has moved to cross-border banking and bankassurance.On the other hand, it turns out that it is quite hard to track some of the trends that are believed to characterize European banking sectors using Finnish data.For instance, disintermediation has thus far been moderate in Finland, as the role of banks as providers of financing to households and companies is still significant and generally shows no signs of diminishing.Tougher competition in lending does not seem to have reduced Finnish banks' profitability, which was at a record high in 1999 and in the first half of 2000. The Finnish banks have fully recovered from the banking crisis of the early 1990s.Improved profitability is largely due to enhanced efficiency as well as recent favourable economic performance.The banking sector has experienced a rapid process of consolidation during the 1990s and currently banks are in the middle of a period of intensive launching of new technology-based products.It can be argued that as a result of developments in the 1990s, the Finnish banking sector is among the most profitable and efficient in Europe. Key words: Banks, financial system, stability
  • Snellman, Jussi (2000)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 74 ; 3
  • Snellman, Jussi; Vesala, Jukka; Humphrey, David (2000)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 1/2000
    Ilmestynyt myös Journal of Financial Services Research 19 ; 2-3 ; 2001.
    The substitution of noncash (check, giro, and credit and debit card) payments for cash transactions is difficult to gauge because there are no data series on the actual value or volume of cash transactions in any country.However, determining the degree of cash substitution is important because it will negatively affect government seigniorage revenue and, if cash use falls fast enough, may require tax revenues to redeem excess currency holdings.We utilise a novel method for approximating the volume of cash transactions using public information on currency stocks and noncash payments.Applying this method, we estimate how cash has been substituted by other payment instruments in 10 European countries.We also provide a forecast of future cash use by country.We find that the trend in cash substitution across countries is quite similar.However, the countries themselves are at significantly different stages of this substitution process.The spread of debit and credit card payments has been the key factor behind the substitution away from cash as use of e-cash innovation is still in its infancy.Country-specific differences in the substitution process are largely explained by differences in the level of implementation of each country's card payment technology.
  • Snellman, Jussi (2000)
    Euroopan maat poikkeavat toisistaan huomattavasti maksuvälineiden käytön suhteen.Suomalainen vähittäismaksuliike on elektronisoituneempaa ja siinä hyödynnetään enemmän itsepalvelua kuin muissa, erityisesti keskieurooppalaisissa, maissa. Verkkopankkitoiminnassa suomalaiset pankit ovat Euroopan kärjessä. Pankkien Internetasiakkaiden määrän ennustetaan kasvavan rajusti lähivuosina kaikkialla Euroopassa.Internetin merkitys maksupalvelujen tarjontakanavana tulee näin ollen edelleen korostumaan.