Browsing by Author "Sun, Xian"

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  • Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; Sun, Xian; Waisman, Maya (2014)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 17/2014
    Published in Journal of Corporate Finance, Volume 25, April 2014, Pages 202–215
    In the presence of high uncertainty and limited experience, can observing the actions of other acquiring predecessors help firms make better acquisition decisions? Using a sample of cross-border M&As conducted by US acquirers in developing countries, we document a positive and significant relationship between an acquirer's performance and its predecessors' acquisition activity. This relationship is especially pronounced in the prevalence of news events about the outcome of predecessors' acquisitions, when predecessors consist of US peers from the same industry and/or when targets are based in culturally distant countries. Our findings shed light on one channel through which information spillovers across industries and acquiring firms could be a key driver of value creation in developing market cross-border M&As.
  • Francis, Bill B.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Sun, Xian; Wu, Qiang (2016)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 5/2016
    Published in in Journal of Corporate Finance 2016 ; 38 ; june ; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcorpfin.2016.03.003
    ​We show that firms led by politically partisan CEOs are associated with a higher level of corporate tax sheltering than firms led by nonpartisan CEOs. Specifically, Republican CEOs are associated with more corporate tax sheltering even when their wealth is not tied with that of shareholders and when corporate governance is weak, suggesting that their tax sheltering decisions could be driven by idiosyncratic factors such as their political ideology. We also show that Democratic CEOs are associated with more corporate tax sheltering only when their stock-based incentives are high, suggesting that their tax sheltering decisions are more likely to be driven by economic incentives. In sum, our results support the political connection hypothesis in general but highlight that the specific factors driving partisan CEOs’ tax sheltering behaviors differ. Our results imply that it may cost firms more to motivate Democratic CEOs to engage in more tax sheltering activities because such decisions go against their political beliefs regarding tax policies.
  • Francis, Bill B.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Sun, Xian (2012)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 28/2012
    Ilmestynyt myös Journal of Economics and Business 2014 ; 73 ; May.
    Using a sample of U.S. mergers and acquisitions, this study evaluates how banking relationships influence acquirers choice of financial advisors. Specifically, it examines: i) acquirers previous relationships with advisors in various financial activities: M&A advisories, equity issuings and lending activities; ii) the optimism of analyst recommendations; and iii) how acquirers past satisfaction with their financial advisors determines the choice of financial advisors. Overall, the findings suggest that the influence of banking relationships on a firm s choice of financial institutions is limited in the area of M&A advisory business. The implications from the traditional relationship banking studies may not be suitable to explain how firms choose advisors, due to the wide variety of practices in investment banking activities. The evidence portrays that firms with M&A experience are more likely to switch financial advisors with poor deal outcomes. Firms without M&A experience, on the other hand, are more likely to choose their underwriters as financial advisors, especially when they provide overly optimistic analyst coverage prior to the transactions.
  • Francis, Bill B.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Sun, Xian (2006)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 24/2006
    Julkaisun kansilehdellä nimi Xian Sun on muodossa Zian Sun. Published in Journal of Banking & Finance, Volume 32, Issue 8, August 2008, pp. 1522-1540.
    Using theories of internal capital markets, this paper examines the link between financial market integration and the value of global diversification.Based on a sample of 1,491 completed cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) conducted by US acquirers during the 1990-2003 period, we find that, in general, US shareholders gain significant positive abnormal returns following the announcement of the merger/acquisition.Specifically, firms that acquire/merge with targets from countries with financially segmented markets experience significantly higher positive abnormal returns than those that acquire/merge with targets from countries with financially integrated capital markets.We find that the significantly higher positive returns are driven particularly by deals between firms from unrelated industries.These firms with higher announcement returns are also characterized by positive and significant post-merger operating performance.This finding is consistent with our event study results and suggests that the overall improvement in the merged firms' performance is likely due to the influx of internal capital from wholly integrated acquirers to segmented targets, firms that, on average are usually faced with higher capital constraints. Keywords: financial market integration, global diversification, internal capital markets, mergers, acquisitions JEL classification numbers: G15, G31, G34
  • Francis, Bill B.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Sun, Xian (2012)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 31/2012
    Published in International Review of Financial Analysis, Volume 32, March 2014, Pages 143-158
    This paper examines the determinants of the choice of financial advisors and their impact on the announcement effects of US acquirers in cross-border M&As. Two hypotheses are tested: one pertains to the acquiring firms' home preference in selecting financial advisors, and the other relates to advisors' experience in target countries. Evidence supports the home preference hypothesis in the selection of advisors in cross-border M&As, particularly in all-cash paid transactions where acquirers take the entire risk of not realizing the expected synergy value. We also observe home preference among investors as acquirers that picked US advisors experience significantly higher positive abnormal returns in all-cash paid transactions than those without US advisors, even when the chosen US advisors do not have significant experience in the target country. Finally, home preference at the choice of financial advisor may be costly if US acquirers pass by more experienced because of home preference.
  • Francis, Bill B.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Sun, Xian (2009)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 7/2009
    Published in Journal of International Money and Finance, Volume 28, Issue 4, June 2009: 696-719
    We examine how political connections impact the process of going public. Specifically, we test how political connections impact the pricing of newly offered shares, the magnitude of underpricing, and the fixed cost of going public. Based on experiences of the new public firms in the Chinese security markets and using multiple measures of political connections, we find robust evidence that issuing firms with political connections reap significant preferential benefits from going public. To be specific, we find that firms irrespective of ownership arrangements with greater political connections have higher offering prices, less underpricing, and lower fixed costs during the going-public process.
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Khalil, Fahad; Sun, Xian (2017)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 17/2017
    We investigate the impacts of improved intellectual property rights (IPR) protection on cross-border M&A performance. Using multiple measures of IPR protection and based on generalized difference-in-differences estimates, we find that countries with better IPR protection attract significantly more hi-tech cross-border M&A activity, particularly in developing economies. Moreover, acquirers pay higher premiums for companies in countries with better IPR protection, and there is a significantly higher acquirer announcement effect associated with these hi-tech transactions.
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Khalil, Fahad; Sun, Xian (2017)
    Quarterly Journal of Finance 3
    BoF DP 17/2017
    We investigate the impacts of improved intellectual property rights (IPR) protection on cross-border M&A performance. Using multiple measures of IPR protection and based on generalized difference-in-differences estimates, we find that countries with better IPR protection attract significantly more hi-tech cross-border M&A activity, particularly in developing economies. Moreover, acquirers pay higher premiums for companies in countries with better IPR protection, and there is a significantly higher acquirer announcement effect associated with these hi-tech transactions.
  • Francis, Bill B.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Lothian, James R.; Sun, Xian (2008)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 10/2008
    Published in Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Volume 45, Issue 1, 2010: 81-106
    While the signalling hypothesis has played a prominent role as the economic rationale associated with the initial public offering (IPO) underpricing puzzle (Welch, 1989), the empirical evidence on it has been mixed at best (Jegadeesh, Weinstein and Welch, 1993; Michaely and Shaw, 1994). This paper revisits the issue from the vantage point of close to two decades of additional experience by examining a sample of foreign IPOs firms from both financially integrated and segmented markets in US markets. The evidence indicates that signalling does matter in determining IPO underpricing, especially for firms domiciled in countries with segmented markets, which as a result face higher information asymmetry and lack access to external capital markets. We find a significant positive and robust relationship between the degree of IPO underpricing and segmented-market firms seasoned equity offering activities. For firms from integrated markets, in contrast, the analyst-coverage-purchase hypothesis appears to matter more in explaining IPO underpricing and the aftermarket price appreciation explains these firms seasoned equity offering activities. The evidence, therefore, clearly supports the notion that some firms are willing to leave money on the table voluntarily to get a more favorable price at seasoned offerings when they are substantially wealth constrained, a prediction embedded in the signalling hypothesis.