Browsing by Author "Takalo, Tuomas"

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  • Takalo, Tuomas; Tanayama, Tanja (2008)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 19/2008
    Published in Journal of Technology Transfer, Volume 35, Number 1, February 2010: 16-41
    We study the interaction between private and public funding of innovative projects in the presence of adverse-selection based financing constraints. Government programmes allocating direct subsidies are based on ex-ante screening of the subsidy applications. This selection scheme may yield valuable information to market-based financiers. We find that under certain conditions, public R&D subsidies can reduce the financing constraints of technology-based entrepreneurial firms. Firstly, the subsidy itself reduces the capital costs related to innovation projects by reducing the amount of market-based capital required. Secondly, the observation that an entrepreneur has received a subsidy for an innovation project provides an informative signal to market-based financiers. We also find that public screening works more efficiently if it is accompanied by subsidy allocation. Keywords: adverse selection, innovation finance, financial constraints, R&D subsidies, certification JEL classification numbers: D82, G28, H20, O30, O38
  • Markkula, Tuomas; Takalo, Tuomas (2021)
    BoF Economics Review 8/2021
    Declining ATM numbers pose a challenge for competition policy and financial regulatory authorities. In this report we review the Finnish experience of regulating the competition in the ATM industry. To analyze the Finnish developments we extend the model of Kopsakangas-Savolainen and Takalo (2014), and draw on the existing literature and benchmarks from the selected other countries. We document how changes in the ATM market regulation and market structure has decoupled the ATM network size from the declining cash use in Finland. The Finnish regulation has almost exclusively focused on foreign fees, while in general it would be better to regulate interchange fees. If the optimal fee regulation is not feasible, the authorities could also consider quantity regulation.
  • Kopsakangas-Savolainen, Maria; Takalo, Tuomas (2012)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 32/2012
    Published in Review of Network Economics
    We build a simple model to study service fee competition between an incumbent and an independent ATM deployer, and its optimal regulation. We use the model to analyze an actual regulation of such a market by competition authorities in Finland. We find that socially optimal first-best fees would imply negative profits for the independent deployer, calling for a Ramsey regulation. While the Finnish regulation pushes the foreign fee downwards towards its socially optimal level, the regulated fees are likely to remain too high from the welfare point of view. In contrast with the actual regulation, it would be essential to regulate the independent deployer's interchange fee, as the incumbent deployer internalizes the effect of its foreign fee on consumer usage of the rival's network and has little incentive for foreclosure.
  • Hyytinen, Ari; Takalo, Tuomas (2008)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 2/2008
    Published in Review of Network Economics, Volume 8, Issue 2, 2009: 164-188
    In the market for payment media, some consumers use only one medium when paying for their point-of-sale transactions, while others use many. This pattern reflects the diffusion of new payment media, because a payment method innovation is typically first used simultaneously with the established methods. We study the use of multiple payment media by employing data on young Finnish consumers. We find that the use of multiple payment media is directly related to consumer awareness and that not controlling for the endogeneity of awareness can bias its effect downwards. These results suggest that increasing consumer awareness may have been underlying the rise of debit card use around the world. It could also speed up the adoption of new means of payment, such electronic money and mobile payments. To the extent that antitrust concerns in the market for payment media stem from the lack of information, improving consumer awareness could be a remedy. Keywords: payment media, consumer awareness, adoption of financial technology JEL classification numbers: G200, E590
  • Komulainen, Mari; Takalo, Tuomas (2009)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 22/2009
    Published in European Financial Management, Volume 19, Issue 3, June 2013: 521-557
    We study whether and to what extent financial exchange innovations are in practice patentable in Europe. We find that exchange-related applications initially increased significantly after the State Street decision but subsequently decreased. The clear majority (65%) of applications come from the U.S. investment banks and exchanges themselves being among the most active innovators. But patents were not easly granted in response to these applications (only 3% of them led to valid patent). The high post-grant opposition rate (41%) for granted patents indicated that competitors tightly monitored each other s patents. The evidence, as augmented with clinical case studies, supports the notion that, for an invention to pass the inventive step requirement for obtaining a European patent, it should have technical features for solving a sufficiently challenging technical problem. Our evidence suggests that patentability standards for financial methods have not weakened in Europe in the aftermath of the State Street decision and that the inventive step requirement constitutes a major obstacle for applicants to overcome in order to obtain a financial exchange patent in Europe.
  • Hyytinen, Ari; Takalo, Tuomas (2000)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 10/2000
    Transparency regulation aims at reducing financial fragility by strengthening market discipline.There are however two elementary properties of banking that may render such regulation inefficient at best and detrimental at worst.First, an extensive financial safety net may eliminate the disciplinary effect of transparency regulation.Second, achieving transparency is costly for banks, as it dilutes their charter values, and hence it also reduces their private costs of risk-taking.We consider both the direct costs of complying with disclosure requirements and the indirect transparency costs stemming from imperfect property rights governing information and specify the conditions under which transparency regulation can (and cannot) reduce financial fragility. Key words: information disclosure, market discpline, bank transparency, deposit insurance, financial safety net
  • Takalo, Tuomas; Toivanen, Otto (2003)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 6/2003
    Published in Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Volume 114, Issue 2, June 2012: 601-628
    We study a financial market adverse selection model where all agents are endowed with initial wealth and choose to invest as entrepreneurs or financiers, or not to invest.We show that often a lack of outside finance leads to the emergence of financial markets where availability of outside finance leads to autarky.We find that i) there exist Pareto-efficient and inefficient equilibria; ii) adverse selection has more severe consequences for poorer economies; iii) increasing initial wealth may cause a shift from Pareto-efficient to inefficient equilibrium; iv) increasing the proportion of agents with positive NPV projects causes a shift from inefficient to efficient equilibrium; v) equilibrium financial contracts are either equity-like or 'pure' debt contracts; vi) agents with negative (positive) NPV projects earn rents only in (non-)wealth-constrained economies; vii) agents earn rents only when employing pure debt contracts; and viii) removing storage technology destroys the only Pareto-efficient equilibrium in non-wealth-constrained economies.Our model enables analysis of various policies concerning financial stability, the need for sophisticated financial institutions, development aid, and the promotion of entrepreneurship. Key words: financial market efficiency, adverse selection, financial contracts, creation of firms. JEL classification numbers: D58, G14, G20, G28, G32
  • Takalo, Tuomas; Tanayama, Tanja; Toivanen, Otto (2008)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 7/2008
    Published in Review of Economics and Statistics, March 2013, Vol. 95, No. 1, Pages 255-272
    This paper studies the welfare effects of R&D subsidies. We develop a model of continuous optimal treatment with outcome heterogeneity where the treatment outcome depends on applicant investment. The model takes into account heterogeneous application costs and identifies the treatment effect on the public agency running the programme. Under the assumption of a welfare-maximizing agency, we identify general equilibrium treatment effects. Applyiing our model to R&D project-level data we find substantial treatment effect heterogeneity. Agency-specific treatment effects are smaller than private treatment effects. We find that the rate of return on subsidies for the agency is 30-50%. Keywords: applications, effort, investment, R&D, selection, subsidies, treatment programme, treatment effects, welfare JEL classification numbers: 038, 031, L53, C31
  • Kultti, Klaus; Takalo, Tuomas; Vähämaa, Oskari (2018)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 20/2018
    We study the ability of competitive coordination service platforms (such as auction sites and real estate agents) to facilitate trade in a directed search model where buyers have unit demands and each seller only has one good to sell. The sellers’ capacity constraint leads to a coordination problem as in a symmetric equilibrium without intermediation some sellers receive multiple buyers while some are left without any customers. We compare this equilibrium to one where sellers and buyers can choose to become intermediaries who coordinate the meetings. We find that roughly 20 percent of agents become intermediaries. As a result, a large part of the supply and demand in the economy vanishes. Moreover, the large amount of intermediaries actually reduces the meeting efficiency. Jointly, these effects imply that the gains from trade are roughly 25 percent lower than in the economy without intermediation.
  • Kultti, Klaus; Takalo, Tuomas; Vähämaa, Oskari (2021)
    Journal of Economics & Management Strategy 2
    Published in BoF DP 20/2018.
    We provide an example where establishing competitive coordination service platforms is so lucrative that they end up reducing welfare. We consider a canonical directed search model in which buyers have unit demands and sellers' capacity constraint leads to a coordination problem: in a symmetric equilibrium without intermediation some sellers receive too many and some too few buyers. We compare this equilibrium to one where sellers and buyers can choose to become intermediaries who coordinate the meetings. In this setup, roughly one‐fifth of agents become intermediaries. As a result, a large part of the supply and demand in the economy vanishes. Moreover, the large amount of intermediaries actually reduces the meeting efficiency. Jointly, these effects imply that the gains from trade are lower than that in the economy without intermediation.
  • Hyytinen, Ari; Takalo, Tuomas (2003)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 17/2003
    Published in International Review Of Law And Economics, 28 , pp. 113-122
    We study the effects of investor protection on the availability of external finance, entrepreneurship, and creation of new firms in an equilibrium search model of private capital markets.In addition to search frictions, we examine contract frictions, specifically interim and ex post moral hazard problems stemming from entrepreneurs' possibilities to expropriate financiers.In our model, the government chooses the level of investor protection that determines the transferability of match surplus between entrepreneurs and financiers.The results indicate that anything that increases (decreases) entrepreneurship also increases (decreases) the creation of start-ups.The effect of investor protection on the creation of start-ups thus hinges on the relative importance of various search and contract frictions.Only when investor protection has a sufficiently large impact on the ex post moral hazard problem relative to the interim moral hazard does strengthening investor protection enhance start-up creation.We also find that search frictions dilute the beneficial effect of investor protection and that contract frictions modify the standard Hosios condition for efficiency. Key words: investor protection, start-up financing, private equity market, entrepreneurship, corporate finance JEL classification numbers: E50, G21, G24
  • Castrén, Olli; Takalo, Tuomas; Wood, Geoffrey (2004)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 22/2004
    Published in Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Volume 57, No. 1, February 2010: 85-102
    It is commonly thought that an open economy can accommodate output shocks through either exchange rate or real sector adjustments.We formalise this notion by incorporating labour market rigidities into an 'escape clause' model of currency crises.We show that the absence of structural reform makes a currency peg more fragile and undermines the credibility of the monetary authority in a dynamic setting.The fragility is captured by a devaluation premium in expectations that increases the average inflation rate when the currency peg is more vulnerable to 'busts' than 'booms'.This interaction between macroeconomic and microeconomic rigidities suggests that a policy reform can only be consistent if it renders either exchange rates or labour markets flexible. Key words: exchange rate policy, labour market flexibility, structural reform JEL classification numbers: E42, F33, D84
  • Korkeamäki, Timo; Rainio, Elina; Takalo, Tuomas (2010)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 1/2010
    Published in Economics of Transition, Volume 21(3) 2013, 509-551 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecot.12020
    A sweeping and protracted reform of corporate law took place in Finland in the 1970s. The reform brought significant improvements to investor protection and, similar to the US Sarbanes-Oxley Act, tightened disclosure rules at the cost of increasing the work load in corporate reporting. We find that the Finnish stock market generally reacts negatively to news of tightened disclosure rules and increased work loads, whereas news of delays in implementation of reform were largely positive. This raises the question of whether strengthening investor protection by requiring greater transparency necessarily promotes the development of financial markets. It also serves to remind that the implementation costs of reforms should not be overlooked.
  • Hyytinen, Ari; Kuosa, Iikka; Takalo, Tuomas (2002)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita; Bank of Finland. Discussion papers 8/2002
    Published in European Journal of Law and Economics, 16, 2003: 59-89
    Although it is widely acknowledged that the benefits of corporate governance reform could be substantial, systematic evidence on such reforms is scant.We both document and evaluate a contemporary corporate governance reform by constructing 18 measures of shareholder and creditor protection for Finland for the period 1980-2000.The measures reveal that shareholder protection has been strengthened whereas creditor protection has been weakened.We also demonstrate how the reform is consistent with a reorganisation of the Finnish financial market in which a bank-centred financial system shifted from relationship-based debt finance towards increasing dominance by the stock market.We find evidence that the development of shareholder protection has been a driver of the reorganisation, whereas the changes in creditor protection have mirrored market developments. Key words: corporate finance, financial intermediation, corporate governance JEL classification numbers: E50, G2 1, G24, G32
  • Takalo, Tuomas; Tanayama, Tanja; Toivanen, Otto (2013)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 2/2013
    Published in International Journal of Industrial Organization, Volume 31, Issue 5, September 2013, Pages 634–642
    We extend the theoretical basis of the empirical literature on the effects of R&D subsidies by providing an estimable model of strategic interaction among subsidy applicants, and public and private sector R&D financiers. Our model incorporates fixed R&D costs and a cost of external finance. We derive the optimal support rule. At the intensive (extensive) margin the costs of external funding reduce (increase) the optimal subsidy rate. We also establish necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of additionality. It turns out that additionality at the intensive margin is less likely with large spillovers. Our results suggest that the relationship between additionality and welfare may not be straightforward. Keywords: R&D, entrepreneurial finance, R&D subsidies, innovation policy JEL classification numbers: O38, O31, L32, H25, G28
  • Hyytinen, Ari; Takalo, Tuomas (2004)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 25/2004
    In the market for payment media, some consumers use only one medium when paying for their point-of-sale transactions, while others multihome and use many.As this pattern reflects the diffusion of new payment media, we take a look at the determinants of the adoption of new payment media through the window of multihoming. Using data on young Finnish consumers, we find that one key determinant of multihoming behaviour is consumer awareness.Our instrumental variable estimates indicate that the better informed use 1.2-1.3 times more payment media than the less informed. Because many payment method innovations are typically first used simultaneously with established methods, our results suggest that increasing consumer awareness could significantly speed up the adoption of new means of payment, such electronic money and mobile payments.Key words: payment media, multihoming, consumer awareness, adoption of financial technology JEL classification numbers: G200, E590
  • Moreno, Diego; Takalo, Tuomas (2012)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 9/2012
    Published in Journal of Money, Credit and Banking 48 ; 1 ; February ; 203-231 ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jmcb.12295
    Consider a competitive bank whose illiquid asset portfolio is funded by short-term debt that needs to be refinanced before the asset matures. In this setting, we show that maximal transparency is not socially optimal, and that the existence of social externalities of bank failures reduces further the optimal level of transparency. Moreover, asset risk taking decreases as the level of transparency decreases towards the socially optimal level. As for the sign of the impact of transparency on refinancing risk, it is negative given the asset´s risk, but it is ambiguous if we account for its indirect effect via risk taking.
  • Takalo, Tuomas; Hyytinen, Ari; Stevenson, Alexis (2021)
    Kansantaloudellinen aikakauskirja 3
    Tässä kirjoituksessa tehdään katsaus patenttien taloustieteellisiin arvottamismenetelmiin ja niistä johdettuihin arvioihin patenttien arvosta. Sen lisäksi raportoidaan uusia tuloksia suomalaisten yritysten (ja eräiden muiden organisaatioiden) patenttien arvosta ja verrataan niitä aiemmin Suomesta saatuihin tuloksiin. Eri arvottamismenetelmillä saadaan laadullisesti samansuuntaisia tuloksia patenttien arvojakauman muodosta ja toimialaeroista arvojen välillä. Eri menetelmät tuottavat kuitenkin erisuuruisia estimaatteja patenttien arvosta johtuen mm. eroista menetelmien vastafaktuaaleissa ja siitä, kuinka hyvin eri menetelmät pystyvät erottelemaan patenttien ja niiden suojaamien keksintöjen arvoa toisistaan. Suomalaisella aineistoilla saadut tulokset ovat samansuuntaisia kuin muista maista saadut tulokset. Tässä kirjoituksessa raportoidut uudet tulokset viittaavat siihen, että suomalaisten yritysten (ja muiden organisaatioiden) patenttien yksityinen arvo on ollut nousussa.
  • Korkeamäki, Timo; Koskinen, Yrjö; Takalo, Tuomas (2007)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 1/2007
    Published in Journal of Financial Stability, 3, 2007, pp. 33-58
    Finland experienced an extremely severe economic depression in the early 1990s.In the midst of this crisis, significant new legislation was passed that increased supervisory powers official market regulators and reformed bankruptcy procedures significantly decreasing the protection of creditors.We show that the introduction of these new laws resulted in positive abnormal stock returns.The new laws also lead to increases in firms'Tobin's q, especially for more levered firms.In contrast to previous studies, our results also suggest that public supervision of financial markets fosters rather than hampers financial market development. JEL Classification: G34, K22 Keywords: corporate governance, bankruptcy, financial supervision,shareholder protection, creditors' rights, corporate valuations, political economy
  • Moreno, Diego; Takalo, Tuomas (2021)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 3/2021
    We study the optimal precision of public information disclosures about banks assets quality. In our model the precision of information affects banks' cost of raising funding and asset profile riskiness. In an imperfectly competitive banking sector, banks'stability and social surplus are non-monotonic functions of precision: an intermediate precision (or low-to-intermediate precision if banks contract their repayment promises on public information) maximizes stability, and also yields the maximum surplus when the social cost of bank failure c is large. When c is small and the banks' asset risk taking is not too sensitive to changes in the precision, the maximum surplus (and maximum risk) are reached at maximal precision. In a perfectly competitive banking sector in which banks' asset risk taking is not too sensitive to the precision of information, the maximum surplus (and maximum risk) are reached at maximal precision, while maximum stability is reached at minimal precision.