Browsing by Author "Yakovlev, Andrei"

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  • Yakovlev, Andrei; Demidova, Olga (2011)
    BOFIT Online 3/2011
    This paper considers the main consequences of the radical reform of public procurement in Russia carried out in 2005-2006. Using data from two surveys of manufacturing enterprises in 2005 and 2009 we show that before the reform firms with government stakes, old firms (established before 1992) and larger firms had advantages in access to government orders. Our analysis of the 2009 data demonstrated substantial growth in the share of firms participating in government procurements. Large firms retain their advantages in access to government orders. The fact of having fulfilled government orders in 2005 has a positive influence on a firm s participation in government procurements in 2009. Estimated scales of kickback in 2009 were virtually the same as in 2005. Our analysis of the 2009 data also revealed that factors of active restructuring of the enterprises had no influence on the enterprises access to government orders. The results of our analysis enable us to conclude that the principal goals of the radical reform of public procurement in Russia were never achieved. We discuss the reasons for this failure and provide some policy implications. Keywords: Russia, regions, corruption, government, procurement
  • Simachev, Yuri V.; Yakovlev, Andrei; Kuznetsov, Boris V.; Gorst, Michael Y.; Daniltsev, Aleksandr V.; Kuzyk, Michael N.; Smirnov, Sergey N. (2009)
    BOFIT Online 2009/6
    This paper presents the results of an analytical project on the methodology for assessing and monitoring anti-crisis measures taken by the government of the RF. The paper is based on an analysis of about 100 measures in support of Russia.s real economy that were initiated in October 2008 . March 2009. Within the scope of this analysis, we singled out the main beneficiaries by industry and the size of enterprise, and estimated the effects of the measures underway in the crisis phase and in the phase of a return to economic growth. The paper also gives an account of the major risks the Russian government will face in putting into practice the measures supporting the real economy, and reveals the key problems and inconsistencies of the anti-crisis program. Key words: Russia, anti-crisis measures, economic policy, state subsidies, fiscal policy.
  • Yakovlev, Andrei (1999)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 3/1999
    Published in Europe-Asia Studies, Volume 53, Issue 1, 2001: 33-55
    This paper discusses Russia's "black cash" economy.Using interviews and survey data, we examine the mechanics of several distinctly Russian tax evasion schemes and attempt a rough estimate of the scale and dynamics involved in tax evasion based on black cash.Entrepreneurs' opinions are also used to get an idea of the incentives and costs of black cash tax evasion.We next describe the apparent economic consequences of black cash tax evasion and formulate general formal conditions for successful evasion at firm level.Finally, we recommend several policy measures to reduce the incentives to such behaviour and discuss questions for future research. Keywords: tax evasion, informal business activity, "black cash", Russia.
  • Yakovlev, Andrei; Freinkman, Lev; Ershova, Nina (2018)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 5/2018
    We explore the role and organizing capacity of foreign business associations (FBAs) in the Russian context. Considering the potential role of FBAs as effective intermediaries during time of aggravated international relations, the paper examines the problems and mechanisms of foreign firms’ interaction with key national partners in their host countries and describes the conditions that lead to effective dialogue between FBAs and national governments. The main phases and factors of evolution are identified for Russia’s two main channels of foreign firms’ collective actions: The Foreign Investment Advisory Council, which is chaired by Russia’s prime minister, and FBAs. A comparative analysis of the efficiencies of each channel finds that political, rather than economic or institutional, factors play the dominant role in explaining the shifting efficiency of collective action of foreign firms over time.
  • Yakovlev, Andrei; Freinkman, Lev; Zolotov, Anton (2016)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 3/2016
    This paper considers the development and current state of Russia’s think tank sector. As in Eastern Europe, international technical assistance played an important in development of Russian think tanks in 1990s. However unlike Eastern Europe, especially new EU members, demand for economic policy input in Russia at the national level has remained strong. As a result, members of Russian expert community today commonly serve in government posts and act as first movers in the consensus-building process for government policy. Russia’s leading economic think tanks have organized professionally to secure a high standard of independent economic analytics and ethical behavior. In this sense, the sector seems more mature than local think tanks in Eastern Europe. While the sector today faces serious challenges from legislative changes that have largely limited the client base to government entities, the economic analysis provided by think tanks remains critical to policy-setting. The findings are based on two surveys of Russia’s leading think tanks. The surveys, conducted in 2012–2013 and 2015, are augmented with in-depth interviews with representatives of Russia’s top think tanks.
  • Yakovlev, Andrei; Freinkman, Lev; Makarov, Sergey; Pogodaev, Victor (2017)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 10/2017
    Tight budget constraints confronting the Russian authorities since the 2008 crisis urge the federal government to adjust the traditional system of its relations with the regions. The paper presents the case of the Republic of Tatarstan (RT) to analyze potential regions’ response to the emerging, considerably harsher “rules of the game.” Our main conclusion is that Tatarstan and other stronger Russian regions can take advantage of the current crisis for transitioning to a new economic development model resembling developmental states in Southeast Asia. This conclusion draws on analysis of the strategies recently implemented by the RT elites in response to external shocks the republic had to cope with in the post-Soviet period. Special focus is on identifying key factors that helped the republic successfully tackle the previous shocks, such as effective mechanisms of aligning the interests of the main regional elite groups and forming a consensus regarding the republican developmental priorities and the instruments for their attainment. The actual prospects for the formation of a developmental state model in Tatarstan will depend upon the success of the current regional elite in finding a consolidated response to new challenges facing the republic in recent years, as well as the constructiveness of the federal policy towards the regions. One of specific obstacles for Tatarstan to follow on Asian experience of catching up relates to a need to accelerate opening up of the regional economy for new, domestic and foreign, players.
  • Freinkman, Lev; Yakovlev, Andrei (2014)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 12/2014
    Published in Post-Communist Economies, Volume 27, Issue 3, 2015: 354-369
    This paper addresses sustainable institutional arrangements to support economy-wide improvements in the investment climate in the context of a middle-income economy. The recent experience of the Agency for Strategic Initiatives (ASI) in Russia provides a valuable example of establishing a new government agency to advance economic deregulation in an environment where the political appetite for reform is limited. In our view, ASI has been the most successful institutional innovation to emerge in Russia since the 2008-09 financial crisis. Rather than engage in the traditional tussle over budget funds and benefits, ASI's mandate has been to organize a strategic dialogue with the private sector and build consensus within the government. We consider ASI's institutional set-up in light of the good practice principles adopted under Russia's "new industrial policy." Our findings suggest other middle-income economies may find ASI's experience applicable when designing institutions to support a deregulation reform agenda. While the crisis in Ukraine has triggered a fundamental shift in Russia's developmental path that is likely to make ASI's deregulation efforts largely irrelevant, the agency's practical experience remains pertinent to the broader discussion of institutional arrangements to promote deregulation.
  • Yakovlev, Andrei (2013)
    BOFIT Online 7/2013
    This paper considers the reasons for increasing the interest of Russian leaders in improving the investment climate in Russia. The paper shows that this change in economic policy is connected not only to the natural rent decline but also reflects the search of the ruling coalition for a new social base represented by successful medium-sized business. These new trends can be interpreted in terms of the "limited access order" concept developed in the recent works of Douglass North and his co-authors. Keywords: Russian transition economy, rents, bureaucracy, large and medium-sized business, response to the crises, investment climate
  • Yasin, Ye; Gimpelson, V.; Golikova, V.; Gonchar, K.; Dolgopyatova, T.; Kuznetsov, B.; Yakovlev, Andrei (2010)
    BOFIT Online 5/2010
    Published in Post-Soviet Affairs, Vol. 27, No. 4 / Oct.-Dec. 2011, p. 366-386 as Russian Manufacturing Revisited: Industrial Enterprises at the Start of the Crisis.
    This paper is based on a major study by the HSE s Institute for Industrial and Market Studies (IIMS) on competitiveness of Russian manufacturing enterprises. The study seeks to identify the drivers and dynamics of business competitiveness, focusing particularly on behavior adjustments of firms in the period 2005-2008 and the lead-up to the global financial crisis. Using the study findings, we attempt to ascertain which firms succeeded (and the extent to which they succeeded) in capitalizing on the strong economic growth before the 2008 global financial crisis. We then ask if these firms managed to catch up with their competitors and secure sustainable competitive positions in the market, as well as identify the bases for output increases and enhanced production efficiency.
  • Yakovlev, Andrei (2008)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 26/2008
    In this paper, we analyze the influence of the state on the improvement of corporate governance in Russia of the early 2000s. Taking into account the low quality of market institutions in the 1990s (i.e., the market failure phenomenon), we assume that state intervention as the “second best” institution had a positive impact in this case. Using a dataset of 822 joint-stock companies, we tested this hypothesis in two types of corporate models – state-owned or mixed firms and “politically connected” firms. The first model confirmed a strong positive influence of state ownership on the corporate governance in Russia in 2001-2004. The estimation results of this model are statistically robust in different specifications. We connect this result with attempts of the Russian government to use standard mechanisms and procedures of corporate governance to defend its property rights in its relations with state-owned and mixed enterprises.
  • Yakovlev, Andrei (2011)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 10/2011
    Using data from a 2009 survey of 957 manufacturing enterprises, this paper examines relations between the state and business as well as priority differences in the distribution of governmental support by federal, regional and local authorities. Regression analysis reveals that a "model of exchange" is the predominant pattern as opposed to "state capture" (in the case of big firms) or "grabbing hand" (in the case of SMEs), both of which were typical of the 1990s. However, there are some differences in priorities at different levels of government. The federal government in 2007-2008 provided more support to state-owned and mixed enterprises providing stable employment, while regional authorities more often supported firms that were pursuing modernization. These trends could pave the way for a shift in governmental policy at the regional level from "state capture"/"grabbing hand" to the Chinese-style "helping hand" model. Keywords: state capture, state-business relations, Russia JEL: D22, H25, H71
  • Yakovlev, Andrei (2016)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 2/2016
    ​Contrary to the focus on the events of the last two years (2014–2015) associated with Crimea and military conflict in Eastern Ukraine, I stress here that serious changes in Russian internal politics (with strong pressure on political opposition, state propaganda and sharp anti-Western rhetoric, and the fight against ‘foreign agents’) became visible already in 2012. Geopolitical ambitions to revise the ‘global order’ (introduced by USA after USSR collapse) and the increased role of Russia in ‘global governance’ were declared by leaders of the country much earlier – with the famous Munich speech of Vladimir Putin in 2007. These ambitions were based on the robust economic growth of the mid-2000s, which encouraged the Russian ruling elite to adopt the view that Russia (with its huge energy resources) is a new economic super-power. In this paper I will show that the concept of ‘militant Russia’ in a proper sense can be attributed rather to the period of the mid-2000s. After 2008–2009, the global financial crisis and especially the ‘Arab spring’ and mass political protests against electoral fraud in Moscow in December 2011, one can speak mostly of ‘militant’ attempts of the Russian ruling elite to defend its power and assets.