Browsing by Author "Zhou, Mingming"

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  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Weill, Laurent; Zhou, Mingming (2017)
    Journal of Financial Services Research 1
    Published in BOFIT Discussion Papers 17/2010.
    This paper examines how the introduction of deposit insurance influences the relationship between bank capital and liquidity creation.
  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Weill, Laurent; Zhou, Mingming (2010)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 17/2010
    Published in Journal of Financial Services Research, 51(1), 2017: 97-123
    This paper examines how the introduction of deposit insurance influences the relationship between bank cap-ital and liquidity creation. As discussed by Berger and Bouwman (2009), there are two competing hypothes-es on this relationship which can be influenced by the presence of deposit insurance. The introduction of a deposit insurance scheme in an emerging market, Russia, provides a natural experiment to investigate this issue. We study three alternative measures of bank liquidity creation and perform estimations on a large set of Russian banks. Our findings suggest that the introduction of the deposit insurance scheme exerts a limited impact on the relationship between bank capital and liquidity creation and does not change the negative sign of the relationship. The implication is that better capitalized banks tend to create less liquidity, which sup-ports the "financial fragility/crowding-out" hypothesis. This conclusion has important policy implications for emerging countries as it suggests that bank capital requirements implemented to support financial stability may harm liquidity creation. JEL classification: G21; G28; G38; P30; P50 Keywords: Bank capital, liquidity creation, deposit insurance, Russia
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Kobeissi, Nada; Wang, Haizhi; Zhou, Mingming (2017)
    International Review of Economics & Finance November
    We investigate the effects of bank financing on regional entrepreneurial activities in China. We present contrasting findings on the role of quantity vs. quality of bank financing on small business formation in China: while we document a consistent, significantly positive relationship between the quality of bank financing and new venture formation, we find that the quantity of supplied credit is insignificant. We report that formal institutions are positively correlated to regional entrepreneurial activities, and informal institutions substitute formal institutions. Our findings also reveal that the institutional environment tends to supplement bank financing in promoting regional entrepreneurial activities.
  • Berger, Allen N.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Zhou, Mingming (2007)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 16/2007
    Published in Journal of Banking & Finance, Volume 33, Issue 1, January 2009, Pages 113-130
    China is reforming its banking system, partially privatizing and permitting minority foreign ownership of three of the dominant 'big four' state-owned banks. This paper seeks to help predict the effects of this change by analysing the efficiency of virtually all Chinese banks in the years 1994-2003. Our findings suggest the big four banks are by far the least efficient and foreign banks the most efficient while minority foreign ownership is associated with significantly improved efficiency. We present corroborating robustness checks and offer several credible mechanisms through which minority foreign owners can increase Chinese bank efficiency. These findings suggest that minority foreign ownership of the big four is likely to significantly improve performance. Keywords: China, foreign banks, efficiency, foreign ownership JEL classification numbers: G21, G28, G34, F23
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Kobeissi, Nada; Wang, Haizhi; Zhou, Mingming (2015)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 11/2015
    Published in Pacific Economic Review, Volume 20, Issue 3, pages 487–510, August 2015.
    This paper provides an empirical examination of the regional banking structures in China and their effects on entrepreneurial activity. Using a panel of 27 provinces and four directly controlled municipalities from 1997 through 2008, we find that the presence of large banking institutions negatively correlates with small business development in local markets and that this negative relation is driven mainly by participation of large banks in the short-term loan market. Rural banking institutions, in contrast, are found to promote regional entrepreneurial activity. Moreover, large state banks facilitate small business development in concentrated markets. When we interact measures of banking financing by state banks and rural banking institutions with a set of provincial level marketization indexes, we find that extensive marketization, factor market development, and sophistication of legal frameworks mitigate the negative effect of large state banks on small business development. In provinces with advanced market development, efficient factor markets, and favorable institutional settings, the positive effect of rural banking institutions on small business growth is even stronger. Finally, we present evidence that banks do a better job of promoting regional entrepreneurship when it occurs in conjunction with policies to foster innovation activity and assure protection of intellectual property rights.
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Wang, Haizhi; Zhou, Mingming (2008)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 28/2008
    Published in Managerial Finance, Vol. 35 Issue: 2, 2009, pp.107-127
    The pace of transition in China over the last two decades has led to great variation across the country in terms of institutional and financial development. In this paper, using a panel of Chinese provinces during the period 1993-2006, we empirically investigate the determinants of the efficiency of the banking sector from an institutional perspective. The most important institutional developments in China are the emergence and gradual dominance of the market economy, financial deepening, the growth of a private sector, the establishment of secure property rights, and rule of law. We find that institutional variables play an important role in affecting banking efficiencies, and that banks tend to operate more efficiently in those regions with a greater private sector presence and more property rights awareness, while the role of financial deepening and rule of law is less straightforward. JEL classifications: G21, O43 Keywords: Institutional development, Bank efficiency, Chinese banks
  • Berger, Allen N.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Korhonen, Iikka; Zhou, Mingming (2010)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 9/2010
    Conventional wisdom in banking argues that diversification tends to reduce bank risk and improve performance, but the recent financial crisis suggests that aggressive diversification strategies may have resulted in increased risk taking and poor performance. This paper addresses this important question by evaluating the empirical relationship between diversification strategies and the risk-return tradeoff in banking. Our data set covers Russian banks during the 1999-2006 period and finds somewhat mixed results. Specifically, we find that banks performance tends to be non-monotonically related to their diversification strategy. The marginal effects of focus indices (inverse measures of diversification) on performance are nonlinearly associated with the level of risk and foreign ownership. A focused strategy is found to be associated with increased profit and decreased risk only up to a certain threshold. Additionally, when foreign ownership is either very high or very low, banks tend to benefit more from being diversified. This analysis provides important strategic and policy implications for bank managers and regulators in Russia as well as in other emerging economies.
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Meslier, Céline; Tarazi, Amine; Zhou, Mingming (2018)
    Journal of Economics and Business January-February
    This paper examines the effects of bank alliance network on bonds issued by European banks during the period 1990–2009. We construct six measures capturing different dimensions of banks’ network characteristics. In opposition to the results obtained for non-financial firms, our findings indicate that being part of a network does not create value for bank’s bondholders, indicating a dark side effect of strategic alliances in the banking sector. While being part of a network is perceived as a risk-increasing event by market participants, this negative perception is significantly lower for the larger banks, and, to a lesser extent, for the more profitable banks. Moreover, during crisis times, the positive impact on bond spread of a bank’s higher centrality or of a bank’s higher connectedness in the network is stronger, indicating that market participants may fear spillover effects within the network during periods of banks’ heightened financial fragility.
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Wachtel, Paul; Zhou, Mingming (2006)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 12/2006
    Published in Journal of Banking & Finance, vol. 33, Issue 1, January 2009, pp. 157-170
    There have been profound changes in both political and economic institutions in China over the last twenty years.Moreover, the pace of transition has led to variation across the country in the level of development.In this paper, we use panel data for the Chinese provinces to study the role of legal institutions, financial deepening and political pluralism on growth rates.The most important institutional developments for a transition economy are the emergence and legalization of the market economy, the establishment of secure property rights, the growth of a private sector, the development of financial sector institutions and markets, and the liberalization of political institutions.We develop measures of these phenomena, which are used as explanatory variables in regression models to explain provincial GDP growth rates.Our evidence suggests that the development of financial markets, legal environment, awareness of property rights and political pluralism are associated with stronger growth. JEL Classifications: O16, P14, P16, O53
  • Shaffer, Sherrill; Hasan, Iftekhar; Zhou, Mingming (2009)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 4/2009
    Economic Development Quarterly, Volume 29, Issue 1, 13 February 2015: 65-78
    Using data from US labour market areas, we quantify empirical associations between entry by small firms and a vector of economic performance measures encompassing levels, volatilities and growth rates of several income and employment variables. Distinct and robust associations are found for net and gross rates of entry. These results suggest a richer variety of effects of entry than previously documented, and point to several potential tradeoffs associated with entry by small firms.
  • Francis, Bill B.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Küllü, A. Melih; Zhou, Mingming (2018)
    Economic Systems 1
    The paper investigates whether diversification/focus across assets, industries and borrowers affects bank performance when banks’ abilities (screening and monitoring) are considered. The initial results show that diversification (focus) at the asset, industry and borrower levels is expected to decrease (increase) returns. However, once banks’ screening and monitoring abilities are controlled for, the effect of diversification/focus either gets weaker or disappears. Further, in some cases, these abilities enhance banks’ long-run performance, but in others they prove to be costly, at least, in the short run. Thus, the level of monitoring and screening abilities should be taken into consideration in understanding, planning and implementing diversification/focus strategies.
  • Berger, Allen N.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Zhou, Mingming (2010)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 4/2010
    Published in Journal of Banking & Finance, Volume 34, Issue 7, July 2010, Pages 1417–1435.
    This paper investigates the effects of focus versus diversification on bank performance using data on Chinese banks during the 1996-2006 period. We construct a new measure, economies of diversi-fication, and compare the results to those of the more conventional focus indices, which are based on the sum of squares of shares in different products or regions. Diversification is captured in four dimensions: loans, deposits, assets, and geography. We find that all four dimensions of diversifica-tion are associated with reduced profits and higher costs. These results are robust regardless of al-ternative measures of diversification and performance. Furthermore, we observe that banks with foreign ownership (both majority and minority ownership) and banks with conglomerate affiliation are associated with fewer diseconomies of diversification, suggesting that foreign ownership and conglomerate affiliation play an important mitigating role. This analysis may provide important implications for bank managers and regulators in China as well as in other emerging economies. JEL classification: G21; G28; G34 Keywords: Diversification; focus; efficiency; Chinese banking