Browsing by Subject "capital flows"

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  • Korhonen, Iikka (2019)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 2/2019
    In this note, I review the literature on the economic effects of sanctions against Russia and Russia’s counter-sanctions. As a general observation, studies of the macroeconomic effects of sanctions on Russia and their effects on international trade and financial flows must deal with the nearly concurrent oil price collapse at the introduction of sanctions. Most papers support the view that sanctions have worked as planned, noting the drag they have imposed on Russia’s general economic development since 2014. This adverse effect most likely operates by depressing both foreign trade and foreign capital flows into Russia. Russia’s own counter-sanctions have also had a clear negative effect on the welfare of the average Russian household.
  • Korhonen, Iikka; Simola, Heli; Solanko, Laura (2018)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 4/2018
    This note briefly reviews the history and current impacts of sanctions on Russian entities imposed by the EU, US and others, as well as Russia’s counter-sanctions imposed on Western countries. A large drop in price of oil in 2014 and 2015 coincided with these measures, complicating our efforts to tease out the specific economic effects of sanctions on the Russian economy. While it is clear that the decline in oil prices had a substantially larger impact on Russian GDP in 2014−2016 than sanctions, the sanctions regime proved effective in restricting access of Russian banks to capital. Looking specifically the impacts on EU countries, we note that the declines in trade with Russia and the EU’s reduced market share in Russia are to some extent continuations of long-term trends. Russia’s counter-sanctions have targeted, among other things, EU food exports to Russia. While the macroeconomic effects Russia’s counter-sanctions on the EU have been marginal, food sector in some EU countries has been affected. Russia’s counter-sanctions have also directly lowered consumption of affected goods in Russia.
  • Norring, Anni (2022)
    BoF Economics Review 1/2022
    This paper gives an overview on the use of macroprudential policy measures (MPMs) and capital flow management measures (CFMs) by emerging economies, and reviews literature on the effectiveness of these measures in containing the effects of large and volatile capital flows. The main findings of the paper are the following: First, major EMEs tend to use both MPMs and CFMs more than AEs. Second, the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of CFMs remains mixed. Third, there is indicative evidence that MPMs can contain the effects of capital flow volatility. Lastly, there is still little research into the interaction of CFMs and MPMs.
  • Ayala, Diana; Nedeljkovic, Milan; Saborowski, Christian (2016)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 8/2016
    ​This paper studies the determinants of shifts in debt composition among emerging market non-financial corporates. We show that institutions and macro fundamentals create an enabling environment for bond market development. During the recent boom episode, however, global cyclical factors accounted for most of the variation of bond shares in total corporate debt. The sensitivity to global factors appears to vary with relative bond market size rather than local fundamentals. Foreign bank linkages help explain why bond markets increasingly substituted for banks in channeling liquidity to EMs. Our results highlight the risk of capital flow reversal in EMs that benefited from the upturn in the global financial cycle mostly due to their liquid markets rather than strong fundamentals.