Browsing by Subject "capital structure"

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  • Newton, David P.; Ongena, Steven; Xie, Ru; Zhao, Binru (2022)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 5/2022
    Is bank- versus market-based financing different in its attitudes towards Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) risk? Using a novel sample covering 3,783 U.S. public firms from 2007 to 2020, we study how firm-level ESG risk affects its financing outcomes. We find that companies with higher ESG risk borrow less from banks than from markets, potentially to avoid bank monitoring and scrutiny. The Social and Governance components, in particular, matter. Furthermore, firms suffering higher numbers of negative ESG reputation shocks are less likely to continue to rely on bank credit in response to lenders' threats to end the lending arrangements. Finally, our results indicate that firms' ESG risk reduces after borrowing from banks but increases after bond issuance, suggesting that banks are more effective than public bond markets in shaping borrowers' ESG performance.
  • Kurronen, Sanna (2016)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 10/2016
    ​This paper examines the effect of natural resources on capital structure of the firm. Using an extensive dataset of listed firms in 70 countries, we show that firms operating in resource extraction industries have less debt and that that debt tends to have a longer maturity than that of other non-financial firms. Moreover, non-resource firms in resource-dependent countries are found to be less indebted than their counterparts in other countries. The results suggest that the very fact of a firm’s location in a resource-dependent country may be an overlooked country-specific de-terminant of firm capital structure and that financial institutions in resource-dependent countries may play a role in exacerbating a nation’s resource curse.
  • Kurronen, Sanna (2018)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 10/2018
    This study examines the financial channel between oil price volatility and the resource curse using firm-level data. A collapse in oil prices adversely affects firm borrowing in resource-dependent countries. However, unlike in non-resource-dependent countries where just the resource sector is harmed, both resource and non-resource firms are affected in resource-dependent countries in an oil price collapse. We also find evidence of a flight to quality in lending, implying that the decline in leverage can partly be attributed to a reduction in the credit supply. Our results suggest that oil price volatility operates via the financial channel to impede economic diversification in resource-dependent countries.