Browsing by Subject "debt accumulation"

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  • Bank of Finland (2019)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 2/2019
    Finnish households are carrying a worryingly large amount of debt. Housing loans and housing company loans have become more common and larger, and their repayment periods have become longer. In addition, the supply of consumer credit has become broader and more varied.
  • Koskinen, Kimmo; Voutilainen, Ville (2021)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 1/2021
    Housing company loans are contributing to household indebtedness and are changing the composition of household debt. Housing company loans can also incentivise residential property investors to become highly leveraged. Imposing a loan-to-value limit of 60% on housing company loans would mitigate the issues associated with large housing company loans and make it easier to assess their risks. The impact of a loan-to-value limit would largely fall on owner-occupied housing output. Housing company loans are generally not used to finance the construction of rental housing. Imposing a loan-to-value limit on housing company loans might increase the number of pre-sales required by small construction companies or raise their borrowing costs.
  • Aaltonen, Markus (2021)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 1/2021
    The stock of buy-to-let mortgages stood at EUR 8.1 billion at the end of March 2021, comprising 7.9% of the total stock of housing loans. It is estimated that buy-to-let mortgages have grown faster than the rest of the housing loan stock since the global financial crisis. Buy-to-let mortgages are smaller than residential mortgages and have shorter repayment periods. In March 2021 the average interest rate applied on new buy-to-let mortgages was higher than on residential mortgages, but lower than the rate applied on housing company loans.
  • Putkuri, Hanna (2019)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 2/2019
    Financial and economic crises have often been preceded by excessive debt accumulation by households.