Browsing by Subject "deregulaatio"

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  • Fromlet, Hubert (2014)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 15/2014
    During and after the Central Committee’s Third Plenum in November 2013, China announced far-reaching reforms in the spheres of marketization and economic deregulation that included financial markets. While the speed of the rollout of China’s planned reforms is still unknown, officials repeatedly reference the great opportunities for guiding China onto a healthier, more sustainable social and economic track. The risks of such ambitious marketization and deregulation plans need to be considered in the context of speed and sequencing of reforms of the financial sector. We currently lack the skills for overcoming the famously low predictability of financial crises. The areas for skill improvement largely relate to market psychology (behavioral finance) and the understanding of history and macrofinancial aggregates. The much-undervalued discipline of behavioral finance has started to come into its own over the past 10 to 15 years, including the awarding of the 2013 Nobel Prize Robert in Economics to Robert Shiller for his efforts at understanding the psychology of financial markets. This year’s Nobel Prize winner, Jean Tirole, also considers behavioral aspects in his work. Sweden has had two serious banking crises in the past 30 years. The first – and most serious – crisis occurred in the early 1990s, while a smaller crisis took place at the end of the last decade. Both were foreseeable. The first crisis emerged as Swedish banking entered uncharted deregulation waters, a situation Chinese reformers will themselves inevitably confront. Swedish research findings with respect to sequencing, speed of reforms and behavioral finance apply nicely to the Chinese discussion. The italicized discussion focuses on what the Swedish deregulation experience means for Chinese policy choices, but most of these observations are generally relevant for policymakers in emerging markets in Asia and elsewhere. Publication keywords: financial deregulation, Asia, Sweden
  • Kerkelä, Leena (2004)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 2/2004
    Russia s economy is energy intense and wasteful of resources.This situation has arisen in part due to the country s ample energy supplies and regulated privileges for domestic consumers.Recently enacted and proposed reforms intended to increase the efficiency of the energy sector by raising domestic energy prices also have implications for the export levels of Russian energy commodities. In this study, we estimate the costs of the subsidised energy system in an allocative sense and then analyse recent moves of the Duma to boost gas and electricity prices to bring them into line with market-based pricing.Our analysis uses a multi-region general equilibrium model (GTAP) modified to express the global dimensions of the subsidisation policy and suggested reforms.Preliminary results show that current subsidies extract over 6% of GDP and limit the potential benefits of Russia s comparative advantage in energy commodities.Increases of 6% in electricity and 10% in the price of regulated gas improve efficiency by reducing distorting subsidies and distinctly shifting output from domestic markets to exports. Keywords: CGE modelling, energy market liberalisation, Russia JEL classification: D58, F17, H71, Q43, Q48
  • Riipinen, Toni (2003)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 12/2003
    This work considers effects of energy market liberalisation in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU).Our analysis is based on a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model called the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP).This specialised model makes it possible to evaluate effects in a general equilibrium set-up. Energy market reforms are widely discussed in the literature, but the use of CGE models has been limited.In the main part of the paper, we perform two experiments.The first is a benchmark liberalisation experiment in which all government taxes and subsidies are removed.The second is an attempt to simulate an increase in the export capacity of energy commodities into the European markets.In general, we find that liberalisation of FSU energy markets would increase welfare in the EU countries, while in the FSU welfare would decrease.This result is mainly due to the terms of trade effect, as export prices of FSU countries decrease. Keywords: energy, computable general equilibrium models, former Soviet Union, welfare analysis
  • Funke, Michael; Ruhwedel, Ralf (2003)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 17/2003
    Published in China Economic Journal, 2008, Volume 1 (2): 203-212
    We calculate welfare gains of trade liberalization in the Central and East European transition economies, following the approach of Romer (1994), who emphasized that proper modeling of the impact of trade restrictions on the number of available product varieties is crucial to quantifying the welfare impact of trade liberalization. The empirical work relies on direct measures of product variety calculated from 5-digit trade data.Although the issue is far from settled, the emerging conclusion is that freer trade has boosted welfare. Trade Liberalization, Product Variety, Welfare, Transition Economies D60, F14, F15