Browsing by Subject "hidas inflaatio"

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  • Ikonen, Pasi; Oinonen, Sami; Schmöller, Michaela; Vilmi, Lauri (2020)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 5/2020
    Stagnation is a period of slow economic growth often characterised by low interest rates and low inflation. It is most commonly associated with the development of the Japanese economy since the early 1990s. In the euro area, the corona crisis together with an already ageing population, diminished productivity growth, and, in places, high levels of debt even before the onset of the current crisis may weaken the economy's ability to recover. There is a danger of the economy slipping into an equilibrium of low interest rates and low inflation, i.e. a liquidity trap. There is also a risk of inflation expectations declining. The policy response in the euro area to the economic outlook weakened by the corona crisis has been swift and decisive. Well-targeted policy measures can mitigate the risk of the economy following an adverse path.
  • Ikonen, Pasi; Oinonen, Sami; Schmöller, Michaela; Vilmi, Lauri (2020)
    Euro & talous 5/2020
    Stagnaatiolla tarkoitetaan hitaan talouskasvun kautta, johon usein liittyvät alhaiset korot ja hidas inflaatio. Vahvimmin stagnaatio on keskusteluissa yhdistetty Japanin talouskehitykseen 1990-luvun alun jälkeen. Euroalueella koronakriisi yhdistettynä jo valmiiksi ikääntyvään yhteiskuntaan, hidastuneeseen tuottavuuskehitykseen sekä paikoitellen jo ennen koronakriisiä korkeiksi nousseisiin velkatasoihin saattaa heikentää talouden elpymiskykyä. Uhkana on luisua hitaan inflaation ja alhaisten korkojen tasapainoon, ns. likviditeettiloukkuun. Riskinä on myös inflaatio-odotusten vaimentuminen. Euroalueella talouspolitiikalla on reagoitu päättäväisesti ja nopeasti koronakriisin heikentämiin talousnäkymiin. Oikein suunnatuilla politiikkatoimilla pystytäänkin vähentämään negatiivisen kehityskulun riskiä.
  • Łyziak, Tomasz; Paloviita, Maritta (2017)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 13/2017
    Available also in Economic Modelling 72 ; June ; 2018 http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:bof-201806011603
    This paper studies the formation of inflation expectations in the euro area. We first analyse the forecast accuracy of ECB inflation projections relative to private sector forecasts. Then, using the ECB Survey of Professional Forecasters (ECB SPF), we estimate a general model integrating two theoretical concepts: the hybrid model of expectations, including rational and static expectations, and the sticky-information (epidemiological) model. When modelling inflation expectations we consider – except for backward-looking factors – the rational expectations assumption and the effects of ECB communication. More specifically, we examine whether ECB inflation projections are still important in expectations’ formation once the impact of forward-lookingness of economic agents has been taken into account. We also derive implicit (perceived) inflation targets and assess their consistency with the official ECB inflation target. Our analysis indicates that the recent turbulent times have contributed to changes in expectations’ formation in the euro area, as the importance of backward-looking mechanisms has decreased, while the importance of the perceived inflation target has increased. We also find that the perceived inflation target has remained broadly consistent with the official ECB inflation target in the medium-term. However, the downward trend of the perceived target suggests some risks of de-anchoring of inflation expectations. The importance of ECB inflation projections for medium-term private sector inflation expectations has increased over time, but the magnitude of this effect is rather small. However, SPF inflation forecasts remain consistent with ECB communication, being either close to ECB projections or between ECB projections and the inflation target.