Browsing by Subject "innovaatiot"

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  • Kortelainen, Mika (2007)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 9/2007
    We present a two country DGE model and estimate it using Bayesian techniques and euro area and US quarterly data for 1977 2004. In analysing the current accounts we find that a lower US rate of time preference or a higher dollar risk premium could render the deficit sustainable, but that these could push the interest rate to the zero bound. Secondly, we find that fiscal policy is not sufficiently effective to improve the current account although the zero bound is not hit. Key words: current account, zero bound, policy coordination JEL classification numbers: E61, F32
  • Takalo, Tuomas; Tanayama, Tanja (2008)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 19/2008
    Published in Journal of Technology Transfer, Volume 35, Number 1, February 2010: 16-41
    We study the interaction between private and public funding of innovative projects in the presence of adverse-selection based financing constraints. Government programmes allocating direct subsidies are based on ex-ante screening of the subsidy applications. This selection scheme may yield valuable information to market-based financiers. We find that under certain conditions, public R&D subsidies can reduce the financing constraints of technology-based entrepreneurial firms. Firstly, the subsidy itself reduces the capital costs related to innovation projects by reducing the amount of market-based capital required. Secondly, the observation that an entrepreneur has received a subsidy for an innovation project provides an informative signal to market-based financiers. We also find that public screening works more efficiently if it is accompanied by subsidy allocation. Keywords: adverse selection, innovation finance, financial constraints, R&D subsidies, certification JEL classification numbers: D82, G28, H20, O30, O38
  • Carlino, Gerald; Kerr, William R. (2015)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 27/2015
    This paper reviews academic research on the connections between agglomeration and innovation. We first describe the conceptual distinctions between invention and innovation. We then discuss how these factors are frequently measured in the data and note some resulting empirical regularities. Innovative activity tends to be more concentrated than industrial activity, and we discuss important findings from the literature about why this is so. We highlight the traits of cities (e.g., size, industrial diversity) that theoretical and empirical work link to innovation, and we discuss factors that help sustain these features (e.g., the localization of entrepreneurial finance).
  • Komulainen, Mari; Takalo, Tuomas (2009)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 22/2009
    Published in European Financial Management, Volume 19, Issue 3, June 2013: 521-557
    We study whether and to what extent financial exchange innovations are in practice patentable in Europe. We find that exchange-related applications initially increased significantly after the State Street decision but subsequently decreased. The clear majority (65%) of applications come from the U.S. investment banks and exchanges themselves being among the most active innovators. But patents were not easly granted in response to these applications (only 3% of them led to valid patent). The high post-grant opposition rate (41%) for granted patents indicated that competitors tightly monitored each other s patents. The evidence, as augmented with clinical case studies, supports the notion that, for an invention to pass the inventive step requirement for obtaining a European patent, it should have technical features for solving a sufficiently challenging technical problem. Our evidence suggests that patentability standards for financial methods have not weakened in Europe in the aftermath of the State Street decision and that the inventive step requirement constitutes a major obstacle for applicants to overcome in order to obtain a financial exchange patent in Europe.
  • Funke, Michael; Yu, Hao (2009)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 10/2009
    In this paper we analyse the impact of R&D on total factor productivity across Chinese provinces. We introduce innovations explicitly into a production function and evaluate their contribution to economic growth in 1993 - 2006. The empirical results highlight the importance and the interaction between local and external research. The evidence indicates that growth in China is not explained simply by factor input accumulation. Keywords: China, R&D, R&D Spillovers, patents, regional economic growth, semiparametric estimators JEL-Classification: C14, O47, R11, R12
  • Ikonen, Pasi (2010)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 21/2010
    This paper models the effects of financial development on economic growth through better or more efficient utilization of technological innovations. The model is based on the endogenous growth theory of Aghion and Howitt and its derivatives, especially the growth model of Aghion, Howitt and Mayer-Foulkes, which covers the effect of financial development on convergence. The main contribution of this paper is to model the innovation channel of finance explicitly. The paper focuses particularly on the interaction term between the measure of own innovation and financial development. As countries approach the technological frontier, own innovation becomes more important to sustain a high growth rate. An adequate level of financial development is needed to realize the full potential of own innovation for economic growth. The data covers the period 1960 2007 for anvanced economies, emerging markets and some other countries for which data are available. In estimation of the model, different regression specifications for the data panel are applied. The robustness of the results is also tested in several ways. The results show a significant and positive sign for the interaction term between the measure of own innovation and financial development in the most important configurations. This suggests that the innovation channel of finance is likely to have a positive role to play in economic growth.
  • Grönqvist, Charlotta (2009)
    Suomen Pankki. E 41
    Tiivistelmä 4 Acknowledgements 5 Introduction 9 Essay 1: The private value of patents by patent characteristics: evidence from Finland 43 Essay 2: Why does the private patent value differ by assignee? 61 Essay 3: Do the assignee's characteristics affect the private value of patents? 97 Essay 4: The optimal patent length is shorter than 18 years 131
  • Yin, Desheng; Hasan, Iftekhar; Kobeissi, Nada; Wang, Haizhi (2017)
    Innovation: Organization & Management 2
    In this study, we examine how noncompetition agreements and the mobility of human capital – a core asset of any firm – affect innovations of publicly traded firms in the United States. We find that firms in states with stricter noncompetition enforcement have fewer patent applications. We also examine patent forward citations and find that tougher enforcement of such contracts is associated with less innovative patents. Notably, we find that stronger enforcement of noncompetition agreements impedes innovation for firms facing intense industry labor mobility. High-powered, equity-based compensation positively moderates the relationship between noncompetition enforcement and innovation, but only for the quality of innovation.
  • Kinnunen, Helvi (2005)
    EURO & TALOUS 2
    Euroopan kilpailuasema Yhdysvaltoihin nähden on heikentynyt 1990-luvun puolivälin jälkeen.Työn tuottavuuserojen taustalla on se, että tietotekniikkaa hyödynnetään EU:ssa kapea-alaisemmin kuin Yhdysvalloissa.Kilpailukykyongelmat liittyvät siten EU:n heikkoon innovatiivisuuteen ja kapea-alaisuuteen innovaatioiden hyödyntämisessä.
  • Takalo, Tuomas; Tanayama, Tanja; Toivanen, Otto (2008)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 7/2008
    Published in Review of Economics and Statistics, March 2013, Vol. 95, No. 1, Pages 255-272
    This paper studies the welfare effects of R&D subsidies. We develop a model of continuous optimal treatment with outcome heterogeneity where the treatment outcome depends on applicant investment. The model takes into account heterogeneous application costs and identifies the treatment effect on the public agency running the programme. Under the assumption of a welfare-maximizing agency, we identify general equilibrium treatment effects. Applyiing our model to R&D project-level data we find substantial treatment effect heterogeneity. Agency-specific treatment effects are smaller than private treatment effects. We find that the rate of return on subsidies for the agency is 30-50%. Keywords: applications, effort, investment, R&D, selection, subsidies, treatment programme, treatment effects, welfare JEL classification numbers: 038, 031, L53, C31
  • Kerr, William R.; Nanda, Ramana (2015)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 28/2015
    We review the recent literature on the financing of innovation, inclusive of large companies and new startups. This research strand has been very active over the past five years, generating important new findings, questioning some long-held beliefs, and creating its own puzzles. Our review outlines the growing body of work that documents a role for debt financing related to innovation. We highlight the new literature on learning and experimentation across multi-stage innovation projects and how this impacts optimal financing design. We further highlight the strong interaction between financing choices for innovation and changing external conditions, especially reduced experimentation costs.
  • Dahlberg, Tomi; Öörni, Anssi (2006)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 32/2006
    Suomen Pankin projekti "Suomalaiset maksutavat 2010" ennakoi suomalaisten maksutottumusten olevan suurten muutosten edessä. Muutosten syitä ovat muun muassa eurooppalaisten maksujärjestelmien integroituminen ja standardoituminen, maksupalveluja koskevan lainsäädännön ja sääntelyn EU-tasoinen kehittäminen, maksupalvelujen kustannustekijöiden ja hinnoittelukäytäntöjen muutokset sekä tekniikan kehityksen tarjoamat uudet mahdollisuudet. Viime vuosina on kehitetty paljon uusia maksuvälineitä ja -palveluita, joille on tunnusomaista tieto- ja viestintätekniikan käyttöön perustuvan automaation lisääntyminen.Harva uusi palvelu on menestynyt.Maksamisen muutoksia koskevan ymmärryksen lisäämiseksi tässä tutkimusraportissa selvitetään kuluttajien tarpeiden, mieltymysten ja tottumusten vaikutusta uusien maksutapojen käyttöönottoon.Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin syyskuussa 2005 postikyselyllä, jossa käytiin läpi keskeiset maksutavat. Kysely lähetettiin 2000:lle satunnaisotannalla poimitulle suomalaiselle kuluttajalle.Tutkimuksen tulosten mukaan maksuvälineen turvallisuus ja luotettavuus koetaan tärkeimmiksi uuden maksutavan ominaisuuksiksi.Muita tärkeiksi koettuja maksuvälineen ominaisuuksia ovat tiedon saanti maksutapahtumasta, yhteensopivuus ostamis- ja maksutottumuksiin, laajakäyttöisyys, helppokäyttöisyys, ajan tai rahan säästö sekä riippumattomuus ajasta ja paikasta.Uudet maksutavat - sähköinen lasku ja ostosten maksaminen matkapuhelimella - eivät vuoteen 2010 mennessä syrjäytä vakiintuneita maksutapoja arvioituna sen perusteella, mitkä ovat kuluttajille tärkeimpiä ominaisuuksia.Luotettavuus tai hinnoittelu ei erottele tärkeimpien uusien maksutapojen - sähköinen lasku ja matkapuhelimella maksaminen - käyttöön myönteisesti ja kielteisesti suhtautuvia.Suppea joukko tekijöitä erottelee maksutapojaan muuttavat maksutapojaan muut4 tamattomista.Maksutavan helppokäyttöisyys vaikuttaa aikeisiin maksaa sekä sähköisellä laskulla että matkapuhelimella.Yhteensopivuus (laajakäyttöisyys) ja helppokäyttöisyys ovat matkapuhelimella maksamiseen vaikuttavia erottelevia tekijöitä.Asiasanat: maksutavat, kuluttajille suunnatut maksupalvelut, kuluttajakäyttäytyminen, innovaatioiden diffuusio, theory of planned behavior (TPB) JEL-luokittelu: A14, D14, L81,O33
  • Toivanen, Mervi (2015)
    Euro & talous. Blogi
    Teknologian kehitys, digitalisaatio sekä kuluttajakäyttäytymisen ja markkinoiden muutokset ovat luoneet pohjaa uusien yritysten esiinmarssille rahoitussektorilla. Nämä niin kutsutut finanssiteknologiayritykset eli fintech-yritykset hyödyntävät tietotekniikkaa ja teknologisia innovaatioita tarjotessaan finanssipalveluita sähköisessä muodossa.
  • Pekkala Kerr, Sari; Kerr, William R. (2017)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 3/2017
    We study the prevalence and traits of global collaborative patents for U.S. public companies, where the inventor team is located both within and outside of the United States. Collaborative patents are frequently observed when a corporation is entering into a new foreign region for innovative work, especially in settings where intellectual property protection is weak. We also connect collaborative patents to the ethnic composition of the firm s U.S. inventors and cross-border mobility of inventors within the firm. The inventor team composition has important consequences for how the new knowledge is exploited within and outside of the firm.
  • Akcigit, Ufuk; Kerr, William R. (2013)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 28/2013
    We study how exploration versus exploitation innovations impact economic growth through a tractable endogenous growth framework that contains multiple innovation sizes, multi-product firms, and entry/exit. Firms invest in exploration R&D to acquire new product lines and exploitation R&D to improve their existing product lines. We model and show empirically that exploration R&D does not scale as strongly with firm size as exploitation R&D. The resulting framework conforms to many regularities regarding innovation and growth differences across the firm size distribution. We also incorporate patent citations into our theoretical framework. The framework generates a simple test using patent citations that indicates that entrants and small firms have relatively higher growth spillover effects. JEL Classification: O31, O33, O41, L16 Keywords: Endogenous Growth, Innovation, Exploration, Exploitation, Research and Development, Patents, Citations, Scientists, Entrepreneurs
  • Honkapohja, Seppo; Turunen-Red, Arja H.; Woodland, Alan D. (2011)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 9/2011
    Published in Canadian Journal of Economics, 49, 2016: 1441-1469
    We study a many-country endogenous growth model in which decisions about innovation and new investment are influenced by growth expectations. Adaptive learning dynamics determine the country-specific short-run transition paths. The countries differ in basic structural parameters and may impose tariffs on imports of capital goods. Numerical experiments illustrate the adjustment dynamics that follow the use of tariffs. We show that countries that limit trade in capital goods can experience dynamic gains both in growth and in utility and that such gains persist longer the larger the structural advantages of the region that applies tariffs. Substantial differences in levels of innovation, consumption, output and utility can appear, and asymmetries in economic outcomes that were present before trade restrictions are made more severe.
  • Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; Sharma, Zenu (2011)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 17/2011
    We investigate the relationship between chief executive officer (CEO) compensation and innovation. In an empirical examination of compensation contracts of S&P 400, 500, and 600 firms we find that long-term incentives in the form of options are positively related to patents and citations to patents. In addition, convexity of options has a positive effect on innovation. We also find no relationship between pay for performance sensitivity (PPS) with patents and citations to patents while we did discover a positive relationship between these and golden parachutes. Finally, we show that subsequent to project failure managers compensation contracts are reset favourably. We provide support for the theory that compensation contracts that offer long-term commitment and protection from failure are more suitable for innovation
  • Pyyhtiä, Ilmo (1991)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 19/1991
    In this paper the reasons for revisions of announced investment plans are analyzed theoretically and empirically. In earlier studies by the author it was shown that investment plans and final investments differ systematically from each other. The theoretical framework is based on neoclassical investment theory, rational expectations and partial adjustment of investment plans. The effects of uncertainty are also studied. The empirical results show that investment plans are endogeneous to the firm and can change as the picture of demand or relative prices of factors of production change. So, the information set relevant to the determination of investment plans can be defined with conventional investment theory. According to the estimation results, reactions to shocks decrease when the survey horizon shortens. This supports the hypothesis on the increasing revision costs of investment plans as the realization time approaches. The results concerning demand uncertainty give some support to the theoretical result that an increase in demand uncertainty may reduce investments.
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Hoi, Chun-Keung (Stan); Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Hao (2020)
    Journal of Corporate Finance June
    We find that social capital in U.S. counties, as captured by strength of social norms and density of social networks, is positively associated with innovation of firms headquartered in the county, as captured by patents and citations. This relation is robust in fixed-effect regressions, instrumental variable regressions with a Bartik instrument, propensity score matching regressions, and a difference-in-differences design that isolates the effects of over time variations in social capital due to corporate headquarter relocations. Strength of social norms plays a more dominant role than density of social networks in producing these empirical regularities. Cross-sectional evidence indicates the prominence of the contracting channel through which social capital relates to innovation. Additionally, we find that social capital is also positively associated with trademarks and effectiveness of corporate R&D expenditures.
  • Schmöller, Michaela (2019)
    Euro & talous 4/2019
    Euroalueen tuottavuuskasvu hidastui 2000-luvun alussa lähinnä innovaatiotoiminnan heikkenemisen seurauksena, mutta vuodesta 2008 lähtien hidastumisen syynä on ollut euroalueen kriiseistä johtuva teknologian käyttöönoton väheneminen. Tämän perusteella kokonaiskysynnän vaje voi heijastua tarjontapuolelle, koska heikko kysyntä vähentää teknologiainvestointeja ja siten syventää ja pitkittää taantumia. Tulokset eroavat perinteisestä makrotaloustieteestä, jossa oletetaan, että suhdannevaihtelut eivät vaikuta teknologiseen kehitykseen. Vakaata taloustilannetta tukeva talouspolitiikka on tärkeää myös tuottavuuden kasvun kannalta.