Browsing by Subject "kauppapolitiikka"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 21
  • Woo, Wing Thye (2018)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 7/2018
    Our principal policy suggestion to China is that, because China’s economy in 2018 is very different from that in 1978, there should be more reciprocity in China’s trade and investment relations with the advanced economies. China should not only give national treatment in the near future to foreign firms but should also set up a mechanism to start easing up on foreign acquisition of Chinese firms in a manner that is consistent with China’s national security concerns. Our principal policy suggestion to the US is to stop equating strategic competition with economic competition. Strategic competition is normally a zero-sum game while economic competition is usually a zero-sum game in the short-run, but generally creates a win-win outcome in the long-run. National economic dynamism and economic resilience emerge from international economic competition and not from sheltering domestic high-tech firms permanently.
  • Lintunen, Julia (2021)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 1/2021
    Since becoming a WTO member in 2001, China has negotiated numerous regional trade agreements with astonishing speed. This paper provides an overview of China’s current free trade agreements and examines the economic importance of two major Asian regional trade agreements for China. The academic literature often treats China’s free trade agreements as driven more by political, rather than economic, interests. The agreements are seen as shallow and concluded with minor economic partners. In fact, China’s approach to trade agreements has evolved over time and cumulative impact of these agreements has been positive for trade between China and its agreement partners. The recently concluded Asian regional free trade agreement, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), should positively influence trade for both China and other participating Asian countries. China could also benefit economically from joining the other major regional trade agreement, the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP).
  • Bank of Finland (1988)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin
    Finland's Trade Policy and Trade Policy Agreements by Veli Sundbäck 3 Trends in Finnish Current Account in the 1980s by Tapio Peura 10 Foreign Trade in the Finnish Economy by Pentti Forsman and Tapio Peura 16 Structural Developments in Foreign Trade by Pentti Forsman 22 Finland's Foreign Trade in Services by Jorma Hilpinen and Pirkko Miikkulainen 28 Finland's Trade and Economic Cooperation with the CMEA Countries by Terhi Kivilahti 34 Finland's Commercial Relations with Developing Countries by Alec Aalto 41 High Technology in Finnish Foreign Trade by Harri Luukkanen 48 European Integration and Finland by Veli Sundbäck 52 Apart from the articles by Hilpinen and Miikkulainen and Aalto, all these articles have previously appeared in various issues of the Bulletin in 1988.
  • Bank of Finland (2019)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 1/2019
    Editorial: European Central Bank strengthens monetary policy accommodation – ECB monetary policy strategy needs to be reviewed 3 Outlook deteriorated rapidly – can this be turned around? 7 The ECB's targeted longer-term refinancing operations have increased bank lending to the private sector 31 Dollar dominance means US risks also pose risks to others 37 Low inflation and interest rates challenge central banks to review their monetary policy strategies 41 Alternative scenarios linked to the global impact of US fiscal and trade policies 52
  • Ryti, Risto (1933)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 13 ; 9 ; September
  • Karhapää, Henna (2019)
    Euro & talous. Blogi
  • Suomen Pankki (2018)
    Euro & talous 4/2018
    Yhdysvaltojen kauppapolitiikka on viime vuoden aikana muuttunut selvästi protektionistisemmaksi ja pyrkinyt muuttamaan kansainvälisen kaupan ehtoja. Protektionistisilla toimilla voi kuitenkin olla arvaamattomia ja pitkäkestoisia seurauksia, kun yritysten tuotantoketjut ovat monimutkaistuneet ja levinneet valtionrajojen yli. Vaikka korkeammat tullit jäisivätkin väliaikaisiksi, maailmantalouden kasvu hidastuu sitä enemmän, mitä voimakkaammin tullikorotukset lisäävät epävarmuutta ja lykkäävät investointeja.
  • Kaaresvirta, Juuso (2021)
    Euro & talous. Blogi
    Kiina liittyi Maailman kauppajärjestö WTO:n jäseneksi tiistaina 11.12.2001. Liittymisprosessi oli pitkä ja alkoi jo 1980-luvulla GATT-sopimuksen aikana. Tuona aikana Kiina teki suuria muutoksia talousjärjestelmäänsä siirtyen suunnitelmataloudesta kohti markkinataloutta ja avaamalla markkinoita myös ulkomaisille yrityksille. Ilman uudistuksia WTO-jäsenyys tuskin olisi ollut mahdollinen.
  • Haaparanta, Pertti; Spolander, Mikko (1991)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 24/1991
    The impact of asymmetries in trade and industrial policies on the market structure and location of firms and on the pattern of commodity trade are examined using a model in which firms have to take the decisions of other firms into account because of imperfect competition. This approach allows us to consider the implications of policy harmonization in contrast to overall liberalization of, for example, trade policies. Among the main results are that policy asymmetries can lead to equilibria where only firms (all active) of unequal size can coexist and where the locational decisions of some firms are aggressive in the sense that the position of other firms is made worse. Policy asymmetries increase competition in the markets. It is also argued that policy asymmetries push trade towards inter-industry trade while with symmetric policies intra-industry trade is observed. The welfare effects of policy harmonization are ambiguous. Inter-industry trade occurs because policy asymmetries tend to concentrate industries in the same place.
  • Simola, Heli (2007)
    BOFIT Online 3/2007
    Russia has cleared an important hurdle in its path to membership of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the signing of the bilateral agreement with the United States.It will still take some months at minimum to finalize Russian membership, and even longer for the effects of membership to be realized.Russia's progress in the WTO negotiations is an important positive sign for international actors of the country's willingness to further integrate with the global economy.Russia has committed to lowering its average import tariff on agricultural and industrial goods by 3 percentage points, but with transition periods.Russia will also liberalize its service sector, but still reserve the right to some restrictions.It is widely believed that WTO membership will have a positive impact on Russia's economic development by enhancing competition and efficiency in the economy and by increasing foreign direct investment (FDI) flows to Russia.Some fears have also been expressed on the ability of domestic companies to survive with the growing competitive pressure.The consequences of future membership will not, however, be dramatic or instantaneous. Keywords: Russia, WTO, trade policy
  • Simola, Heli (2014)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 9/2014
    Russia decided last week on an import ban on certain food products originating in countries that have imposed economic sanctions on Russia. All countries subject to the ban had at least some exports to Russia in these product categories last year.
  • Lainela, Seija (2010)
    Bofit. Focus/Opinion. Expert view 6/2010
  • Suomen Pankki; Airikkala, Reino; Sukselainen, Tuomas (1976)
    Suomen Pankki. Yleistajuiset selvitykset. A 41/1976
  • Rautava, Jouko (2001)
    BOFIT Online 2001/3
    Venäjän talouskasvun ja ruplan reaalisen vahvistumisen myötä Suomen Venäjän-viennin arvo vuonna 2000 kasvoi 34 %.Erityisen voimakkaasti kasvoi investointitavaroiden vienti.Tuonnin arvon voimakas kasvu puolestaan johtui energian ja raaka-aineiden hintojen noususta.Venäjän talouskehityksen ja kauppapolitiikan ennakoimattomuus vaikeuttavat edelleen Venäjän-kaupan kehitystä. Tilanteen paraneminen edellyttäisi Venäjältä pitkäjänteisempää kauppapolitiikkaa ja luopumista toimista, jotka perustuvat vain lyhytnäköiseen rahankeruuseen tai ylettömään sekä sopimusten vastaiseen kotimaisen tuotannon suojelemiseen.EU voisi tukea Venäjän avautumiskehitystä keskittymällä nykyistä tehokkaammin olemassa olevan Kumppanuus- ja yhteistyösopimuksen (PCA) hengen ja määräysten toimeenpanoon.
  • Niemi, Riku (2016)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 1/2016
    Russia, Kazakhstan, and Belarus established the Eurasian Customs Union in 2010. Five years later, it became the Eurasian Economic Union. External tariffs have been harmonised and some internal trade barriers have been tackled. Most notably, internal border controls had been abolished by July 2011. This policy brief brings together facts and data on recent changes in trade-related institutions, trade barriers and trade flows across the internal and external borders of the Union. Trade barriers and flows are analysed at the level of product categories. The purpose is to identify the countries and sectors where the greatest trade creation or diversion is likely to have taken place and whether notable changes can be observed.
  • Everaert, Greetje M.M. (2004)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 12/2004
    In today s increasingly competitive business environment, many firms in declining industries have been confronted with the need to restructure.However, lobbies in these industries have often managed to attract government subsidies instead.This paper looks at the decision of a loss-making firm whether to lobby for subsidies or whether to restructure in the context of a contributions game as in Magee et al.(1989).We further analyse the role of tariffs in restricting uncompetitive practices such as granting state aid to unprofitable firms.Several results stand out.Firstly, there is a trade-off between spending resources on lobbying for subsidies and costly restructuring such that both restructuring and subsidisation take place in our model.Secondly, countervailing tariffs on subsidised exports shift the decision in favour of restructuring, thereby hardening budget constraints. Hence, the model illustrates that external constraints such as countervailing tariffs can help to establish internal financial discipline when first-best solutions are politically unfeasible. Thirdly, the social planner always prefers full restructuring implying that political competition comes at a cost of lower economic welfare in our model. JEL classification: P26, F13 Keywords: soft budget constraints, restructuring, political economy, lobbying, trade policy, declining industries
  • Funke, Michael; Wende, Adrian (2022)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 1/2022
    In light of the recent tit-for-tat trade dispute between China and the US, interest in quantifying the effects of the so-called phase one agreement has risen. To this end, the paper quantifies the impact of the asymmetric managed trade agreement using a multi-country open-economy dynamic general quilibrium model. Besides assessing the direct implications for China and the US, trade diversion effects are also analyzed. The model-based analysis finds noticeable positive (negative) impacts of the agreement for the US (China) as well as negative spillover effects for countries not directly affected by the managed trade deal due to trade diversion. The impact of possible future trade agreements is also examined.
  • Bank of Finland (2018)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 4/2018
    The trade policy of the United States has in the last year become increasingly protectionist, aiming to change the terms of international trade. However, protectionist measures may have unexpected and long-term repercussions as businesses' supply chains have become more complex and extending across national boundaries. Even if the higher tariffs were temporary, the global economy will grow more slowly, the more the tariff increases heighten uncertainty and postpone investments.
  • Laurila, Juhani (2002)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 10/2002
    This study compares transition processes in countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union (FSU) and sub-Saharan Africa.By widening the scope from most- to least-developed transition economies, the study establishes the importance of a strong state with evolved institutional capacity to protect citizens, enforce property rights and generate social capital.The evidence presented further argues that enforceable, credible property rights with associated market discipline are among the best antidotes to corruption, shadow economies, criminal injustice and poverty.The presence of accountable institutions also influences economic growth and the ability of a country to attract trade and foreign direct investment.Consequently, when institutions of FSU and sub-Saharan countries develop to the point they become attractive to traders and investors from rich countries, their governments need to focus on abolition of barriers to trade, investment and capital.The author commends the recent reorientation of the international donor community towards encouraging recipient governments to commit credibly to increasing capacities of their state institutions with a view to supporting property-based rule of law and social order.Key words: sub-Saharan Africa, former Soviet Union, property rights, institutions, growth, international trade, development assistance