Browsing by Subject "kilpailu"

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  • Mehrotra, Aaron (2007)
    Bofit. Focus/Opinion. Asiantuntijan näkemys 2/2007
  • Kortelainen, Mika (2007)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 9/2007
    We present a two country DGE model and estimate it using Bayesian techniques and euro area and US quarterly data for 1977 2004. In analysing the current accounts we find that a lower US rate of time preference or a higher dollar risk premium could render the deficit sustainable, but that these could push the interest rate to the zero bound. Secondly, we find that fiscal policy is not sufficiently effective to improve the current account although the zero bound is not hit. Key words: current account, zero bound, policy coordination JEL classification numbers: E61, F32
  • Koskela, Erkki; Stenbacka, Rune (2000)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 12/2000
    We address the question of how lending market competition, measured by the bargaining power of banks, affects the agency costs of debt finance.It is shown that intensified lending market competition will lead to lower lending rates and investment return distributions which are shifted towards lower, but less risky returns.Consequently, it follows that increased lending market competition will reduce the agency cost of debt financing.Hence, our analysis does not lend support to the commonly held view that there would be a trade-off between more intensive lending market competition and higher agency costs of debt finance.
  • Toivanen, Mervi (2006)
    Bank of Finland. Financial market report 4
    The average interest rate on the deposit stock rose in 2006. Statistics do not, however, clearly indicate that banks have started to compete in terms of deposit rates. Deposit rates are developing much as in the last period of rising market interest rates. In 2006, an increase in market interest rates led, in particular, to rises in the interest rates on non-financial corporations' deposits and on households' fixed-term deposits. In contrast, interest rates on households' most common transactions accounts have not risen.
  • Vajanne, Laura (2007)
    Bank of Finland. Financial market report 1
    Findings of a European Commission study show that in the European retail banking market, several barriers to competition exist, which raise retail banking costs to companies and consumers. High profitability of banking, concentrated markets and evidence of entry barriers give reason to suspect that in some EU countries, banks are able maintain a fairly high level of fees charged to consumers and small firms.
  • Hainz, Christa; Weill, Laurent; Godlewski, Christophe J. (2008)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 27/2008
    Published in Journal of Financial Services Research, Volume 44, Issue 2, October 2013: 131-148
    We investigate the impact of bank competition on the use of collateral in loan contracts. We develop a theoretical model incorporating information asymmetries in a spatial competition framework where banks choose between screening the borrower and asking for collateral. We show that presence of collateral is more likely when bank competition is low. We then test this prediction empirically on a sample of bank loans from 70 countries. We estimate logit models where the presence of collateral is regressed on bank competition, measured by the Lerner index. Our empirical tests corroborate the theoretical predictions that bank competition reduces the use of collateral. These findings survive several robustness checks.
  • Vajanne, Laura (2009)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 2
    Empirical evidence from the euro area indicates that retail interest rates tend to adjust slowly and incompletely to changes in market interest rates. Responses also seem to be asymmetric: deposit rates display rigidity when market rates rise, but flexibility when they fall. In addition, the available evidence for the euro area banking sector suggests there are significant differences across countries in the way banks adjust their interest rates in response to changes in corresponding market rates. The sensitivity of deposit interest rates with respect to changes in market rates can be used as an indicator for the level of competition in banking.
  • Fung, K.C.; Korhonen, Iikka; Li, Ke; Ng, Francis (2008)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 9/2008
    Published in Journal of Economic Integration, September 2009, v. 24, iss. 3, pp. 476–504
    China has emerged as one of the world's leading recipients of foreign direct investment (FDI). Meanwhile, the successful transition experience of many Central and Eastern Euro-pean countries (CEECs) also enables them to attract an increasing share of global foreign investment, particularly from the European Union (EU). What is the relationship between inward FDI of China and the CEECs? We conceptualize the relationship according to three alternative paradigms: 1) China and the CEECs each exist in its own regional pro-duction network, with no linkage between FDI flows into China and into CEECs; 2) China and the CEECs together comprise a global production network, so that FDI into China is positively related to FDI into CEECs; and 3) FDI into China is a substitute for FDI into the CEECs, so that the correlation between them is negative. In this paper, we employ pan-el data to study this issue in detail. Specifically, we compare empirical estimates for 15 CEECs over the 15-year period 1990-2004 using four different econometric approaches: FGLS with Random effects, FGLS with fixed effects, EC2SLS and GMM. The result supports the conclusion that China's inward FDI does not crowd out CEECs' inward FDI. In fact, it shows that in some circumstances FDI flows in these two regions are moderately complementary. In addition, our analysis confirms the importance for FDI flows of recipient-country characteristics such as market size, degree of trade liberalization and labor quality, as well as a healthy global capital market. JEL classification numbers: F20, F21, F43 Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), Regional Networks, Global Supply Chain, China's FDI, Central and Eastern European Countries' FDI
  • Kemppainen, Kari (2003)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 16/2003
    In this study, the interaction between the competition-cooperation nexus and regulation in retail payment systems is analysed by applying the main lessons from the theory of network industries. This is justifiable on the grounds that the payment systems industry inherently has many characteristics in common with network industries.On the other hand, since the provision of payment services also has many special characteristics, the regulatory tools commonly used in many other network industries cannot be applied directly.In general, the main role of payment system regulators is to provide a level playing field for different service providers.To secure dynamic efficiency, the regulators also need to ensure adequate incentives for innovation and investment.In this respect, it is important that they do not take too restrictive an attitude towards cooperation among payment service providers.In addition to general policy analysis, the study also analyses developments in the European retail payment system field and the roles and aims of market participants. Key words: Competition policy, payment systems, retail payments, network economics JEL classification numbers: D49, G28, L98
  • Kemppainen, Kari (2003)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 77 ; 3
  • Markkula, Tuomas; Takalo, Tuomas (2021)
    BoF Economics Review 8/2021
    Declining ATM numbers pose a challenge for competition policy and financial regulatory authorities. In this report we review the Finnish experience of regulating the competition in the ATM industry. To analyze the Finnish developments we extend the model of Kopsakangas-Savolainen and Takalo (2014), and draw on the existing literature and benchmarks from the selected other countries. We document how changes in the ATM market regulation and market structure has decoupled the ATM network size from the declining cash use in Finland. The Finnish regulation has almost exclusively focused on foreign fees, while in general it would be better to regulate interchange fees. If the optimal fee regulation is not feasible, the authorities could also consider quantity regulation.
  • Kopsakangas-Savolainen, Maria; Takalo, Tuomas (2012)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 32/2012
    Published in Review of Network Economics
    We build a simple model to study service fee competition between an incumbent and an independent ATM deployer, and its optimal regulation. We use the model to analyze an actual regulation of such a market by competition authorities in Finland. We find that socially optimal first-best fees would imply negative profits for the independent deployer, calling for a Ramsey regulation. While the Finnish regulation pushes the foreign fee downwards towards its socially optimal level, the regulated fees are likely to remain too high from the welfare point of view. In contrast with the actual regulation, it would be essential to regulate the independent deployer's interchange fee, as the incumbent deployer internalizes the effect of its foreign fee on consumer usage of the rival's network and has little incentive for foreclosure.
  • Hasan, Iftekhar; Lozano-Vivas, Ana; Pastor, Jesús (2000)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 24/2000
    Recent cross-country comparisons of bank efficiency have been based on pooled estimates of banks across countries and have typically assumed a common frontier and that differences in performance among banks are primarily due to disparities in certain country-specific aspects of banking technology.This paper argues that such comparisons of performance must take into account cross-country differences in economic conditions, demographics, and regulatory structures (environmental factors).Using a sample of banks from ten leading European countries, this paper provides detailed evaluations of the efficiency of banks in each country that operate both within and outside their own environments.The results indicate that adverse (advantageous) environmental conditions are a positive (negative) factor for the home banking industry and that technical efficiency is a significant deterrence to foreign competition.
  • Kauko, Karlo (1998)
    Suomen Pankin keskustelualoitteita 28/1998
    In this paper a game theoretic duopoly model is developed to analyse the development of an interbank payment system.There are two competing banks in the model, and payment services offered to the public are among their main products.The customer of the larger bank uses mainly intrabank payment services; these services are assumed to be of high quality.This creates a so-called network externality, meaning that many customers prefer to use the large bank for quality reasons.The development of interbank payment systems reduces the significance of this factor and hence benefits the small bank.A big bank has a sufficient incentive to develop the system only if a fee is charged for using payment systems.The role for public investment depends critically on the pricing of payment services.If banks offer payment services free of charge, their incentives to develop the system are strongly biased, and it would be efficient for the central bank to have an active role in developing the system.If instead payment services are directly priced, eventual distortions are much less serious, and the role of the central bank need not be as prominent. JEL Classification Numbers: G18, G21, L13 Keywords: banks, payments systems, network externality, duopoly
  • Myller, Marko (2008)
    Bank of Finland. Financial market report 3
    Multilateral trading facilities (MTFs) have arrived in Europe. As competition heightens, the focus of attention is on the most traded shares on stock exchanges. Will there be a redistribution of trading volumes? The future of one of the new players already looks unsure.
  • Weill, Laurent (2010)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 2/2010
    Published in Comparative Economic Studies (2011) 53, 291-306
    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether Islamic banks have greater market power than con-ventional banks. An Islamic bank, for example, might enjoy enhanced market power if a captive clientele adhering to religious principles permits it to charge higher prices. To measure market power, we compute Lerner indices for a sample of banks from 17 countries where Islamic and conventional banks coexist. Comparison of Lerner indices shows no significant difference between Islamic banks and conventional banks over the period 2000-2007. When including control variables, regression of Lerner indices even suggests that Islamic banks have less market power than conventional banks. A robustness check with the Rosse-Panzar model confirms that Islamic banks are no less competitive than conventional banks. Thus, any reduced market power of Islamic banks can be attributed to differences in norms and incentives.
  • Juselius, Mikael; Kim, Moshe; Ringbom, Staffan (2009)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 12/2009
    Persistent shifts in equilibria are likely to arise in oligopolistic markets and may be detrimental to the measurement of conduct, related markups and intensity of competition. We develop a cointegrated VAR (vector autoregression) based approach to detect long-run changes in conduct when data are difference stationary. Importantly, we separate the components in markups which are exclusively related to long-run changes in conduct from those explained solely by fundamentals. Our approach does not require estimation of markups and conduct directly, thereby avoiding complex problems in existing methodologies related to multiple and changing equilibria. Results from applying the model to US and five major European banking sectors indicate substantially different behavior of conventional raw markups and conduct-induced markups. Keywords: markups, cointegration, VAR, macroeconomic fundamentals, competition, banking JEL classification numbers: C32, C51, G20, L13, L16
  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Solanko, Laura; Weill, Laurent (2013)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 17/2013
    Published in Journal of Banking & Finance, Volume 49, December 2014, p. 356–366 as Does competition influence the bank lending channel in the euro area?
    This paper examines how bank competition influences the bank lending channel in the Euro area countries. Using a large panel of banks from 12 euro area countries over the period 2002?2010 we analyze the reaction of loan supply to monetary policy actions depending on the degree of bank competition. We find that the effect of monetary policy on bank lending is dependent on bank competition: the transmission of monetary policy through the bank lending channel is less pronounced for banks with extensive market power. Further investigation shows that banks with less market power were more sensitive to monetary policy only before the financial crisis. These results suggest that the bank market power has a significant impact on monetary policy effectiveness. Therefore, wide variations in the level of bank market power may lead to asymmetric effects of a single monetary policy. JEL Codes: E52, G21. Keywords: bank competition, bank lending channel, monetary policy, euro area.
  • Fungáčová, Zuzana; Shamshur, Anastasiya; Weill, Laurent (2017)
    Journal of Banking and Finance October
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 6/2016
    Despite the extensive debate on the effects of bank competition on economic welfare and growth, only a handful of single-country studies deal with the impact of bank competition on the cost of credit. We contribute to the literature by investigating the impact of bank competition on the cost of credit in a cross-country setting. Using a panel of firms from 20 European countries covering the period 2001–2011, we consider a broad set of measures of bank competition, including two structural measures (Herfindahl–Hirschman index and CR5), and two non-structural indicators (Lerner index and H-statistic). We find that bank competition increases the cost of credit and observe that the positive influence of bank competition is stronger for smaller companies. Our findings accord with the information hypothesis, whereby a lack of competition incentivizes banks to invest in soft information and conversely increased competition raises the cost of credit. This positive impact of bank competition is however influenced by the institutional and economic framework, as well as by the crisis.
  • Kivistö, Jarkko (2009)
    EURO & TALOUS 4
    Elintarvikkeiden hinnat nousivat nopeasti vuosina 2007 ja 2008 eri puolilla maailmaa. Hintojen nousu alkoi euroalueella vuoden 2007 puolivälissä, mutta Suomessa kuluttajahinnat reagoivat viiveellä ja nousivat vasta tammikuussa 2008. Sen jälkeen suomalaisten elintarvikkeiden hinnat ovat kohonneet enemmän ja pidempään kuin euroalueella keskimäärin. Ilman lokakuussa 2009 toteutettua arvonlisäveron alennusta elintarvikkeiden hinnat olisivat Suomessa edelleen suhteellisesti kalliimpia kuin euroalueella. Mahdollisia selityksiä elintarvikkeiden hintojen nopeampaan nousuun Suomessa ovat energian hinnannousun suurempi vaikutus sekä palkkojen nopea kohoaminen. Elintarvikeketjun tarkastelu osoittaa myös merkkejä siitä, että päivittäistavarakaupan muiden kustannusten kasvu on syönyt katteita ja lisännyt kustannuspainetta kuluttajahintoihin.