Browsing by Subject "koulutus"

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  • Roland, Gerard; Yang, David Y. (2019)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 11/2019
    Beliefs about whether effort pays off govern some of the most fundamental choices individuals make. This paper uses China’s Cultural Revolution to understand how these beliefs can be affected, how they impact behavior, and how they are transmitted across generations. During the Cultural Revolution, China’s college admission system based on entrance exams was suspended for a decade until 1976, effectively depriving an entire generation of young people of the opportunity to access higher education (the “lost generation”). Using data from a nationally representative survey, we compare cohorts who graduated from high school just before and after the college entrance exam was resumed. We find that members of the “lost generation” who missed out on college because they were born just a year or two too early believe that effort pays off to a much lesser degree, even 40 years into their adulthood. However, they invested more in their children’s education, and transmitted less of their changed beliefs to the next generation, suggesting attempts to safeguard their children from sharing their misfortunes.
  • Mäki-Fränti, Petri (2016)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 3/2016
    The ability to predict future income is essential for the wellbeing of households. While there have been no major changes in Finnish households’ income uncertainty over the past 25 years or so, there would appear to be some ingrained differences across population groups. Income uncertainty has been higher for the less educated than for the highly educated, while risks to the income of the self-employed are high relative to their expected income development. Public transfers have moderated the risks associated with earnings development, notably for the less educated. The significance of public transfer schemes for levelling out income development becomes more apparent as the population ages, with a larger share of the population reliant on public transfers to make ends meet.
  • Mäki-Fränti, Petri (2019)
    Bank of Finland Bulletin. Analysis
    Educational attainment among the Finnish working-age population is still high by international standards. Yet growth in the educational attainment of young adults has already started to slow, and 40–44-year-olds are now the age group with the highest level of educational attainment in Finland. Pursuing education, however, and completing a tertiary degree in particular, still remains financially worthwhile.
  • Suomen Pankki (1946)
    - henkilökunta (1919-1969) - huonetilat (1943-1972) - juhlat (1954-1969) - Bruno Suvirannalle 14.3.1946 (juhlakirja) - tutkimusyhteistyö (1969-1970) - tutkimusharjoittelijat 1971
  • Kinnunen, Helvi; Mäki-Fränti, Petri (2017)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 5/2017
    Well-educated people typically earn more than those with a lower level of education. This article discusses the financial benefits of education when, in addition to earnings level, we also take into account the better employment prospects of people with higher education. A higher education degree would still appear to be a profitable investment, especially for men.
  • Vaihekoski, Mika (2008)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 18/2008
    This paper reviews the first thirty years of finance research and education in Finland, starting with publication of the first dissertation in finance in 1977. That was also the year when the first department of finance was established in Finland - among the first in the Nordic countries. This review shows how Finnish financial education and research developed from a humble beginning to a level that brought international acclaim. This can be largely attributed to a number of talented and hard-working individuals but also to the decision for collaboration among the Finnish universities, as a means to overcome some of the problems of a small country. Keywords: financial education, research, graduate school, Finland, history, professors, dissertation JEL classification numbers: A23, B25, G00
  • Kinnunen, Helvi; Mäki-Fränti, Petri (2017)
    Euro & talous 5/2017
    Työvoiman tarjonnan tukeminen on jo pitkään ollut talouspolitiikan tärkeimpiä tavoitteita Suomessa. Politiikkatoimien vaikutus on tyypillisesti suurin niissä väestöryhmissä, joille on tarjolla vaihtoehtoja palkkatyölle. Kannustimilla ja työmarkkinoiden rakenteella on merkitystä varsinkin nuorten, nuorten naisten sekä ikääntyneiden työntekijöiden päätöksille ja mahdollisuuksille päästä työmarkkinoille. Politiikkatoimia suunniteltaessa on toisaalta pystyttävä erottamaan, miltä osin havaittu työllisyyskehitys johtuu rakennetekijöistä ja missä määrin se on suhdanneluonteista. Vaikka taloustilanteen piristyminen houkuttelee nyt nuoria ikäluokkia takaisin työmarkkinoille, työllisyyden parantamiseksi tarvitaan edelleen myös talouspolitiikan toimia. Näissä toimissa korostuu varsinkin koulutuksen merkitys.
  • Kinnunen, Helvi; Mäki-Fränti, Petri (2017)
    Euro & talous 5/2017
    Hyvin koulutettujen ansiotaso on tyypillisesti korkeampi kuin heikosti koulutettujen. Seuraavassa tarkastellaan koulutuksen taloudellisia hyötyjä, kun ansiotason lisäksi otetaan huomioon hyvin koulutettujen parempi työllisyystilanne. Korkea-asteen tutkinnon suorittaminen näyttää etenkin miesten tapauksessa edelleen kannattavalta sijoitukselta.
  • Mäki-Fränti, Petri (2016)
    Euro & talous 3/2016
    Kotitalouksien hyvinvoinnin kannalta on olennaista, kuinka ennakoitavaa tulokehitys on. Suomalaisten kotitalouksien tuloepävarmuudessa ei ole tapahtunut suuria muutoksia viimeisen noin 25 vuoden aikana. Väestöryhmien välillä näyttää kuitenkin olevan pysyviä eroja. Vähän koulutettujen tuloepävarmuus ollut suurempaa kuin korkeasti koulutettujen, ja yrittäjien tulokehityksen riskit ovat suuret odotettuun tulokehitykseen suhteutettuna. Tulonsiirrot ovat tasoittaneet ansiotalokehityksen riskejä varsinkin vähän koulutetuilla. Tulonsiirtojärjestelmien merkitys tulokehityksen tasoittamisessa korostuu väestön ikääntyessä, kun aiempaa suurempi osa väestöstä elää tulonsiirtojen varassa.
  • Kokkinen, Arto (Gaudeamus, 2019)
    Vaurastumisen vuodet - Suomen taloushistoria teollistumisen jälkeen
    Luku 11 kirjassa "Vaurastumisen vuodet : Suomen taloushistoria teollistumisen jälkeen"
  • Zakharov, Viktor V.; Sutyrin, Sergei F. (1996)
    IDÄNTALOUKSIEN KATSAUKSIA. REVIEW OF ECONOMIES IN TRANSITION 1/1996
  • Delis, Manthos D.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Iosifidi, Maria (2017)
    Bank of Finland Research Discussion Papers 22/2017
    Published in Journal of Business Ethics 2019 ; 155 ; 3.
    We empirically test the hypothesis that a major in economics, management, business administration or accounting (for simplicity referred to as business/economics) leads to more-conservative (right-wing) political views. We use a panel dataset of individuals (repeated observations for the same individuals over time) living in the Netherlands, drawing data from the Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences from 2008 through 2013. Our results show that when using a simple fixed effects model, which fully controls for individuals’ time-invariant traits, any statistically and quantitatively significant effect of a major in business/economics on the political ideology of these individuals disappears. We posit that, at least in our sample, there is no evidence for a causal effect of a major in business/economics on individuals’ political ideology.
  • Delis, Manthos D.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Iosifidi, Maria (2019)
    Journal of Business Ethics 3
    Published in Bank of Finland Discussion Paper 22/2017.
    We empirically test the hypothesis that a major in economics, management, business administration or accounting (for simplicity referred to as Business/Economics) leads to more-conservative (right-wing) political views. We use a panel dataset of individuals (repeated observations for the same individuals over time) living in the Netherlands, drawing data from the Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences from 2008 through 2013. Our results show that when using a simple fixed effects model, which fully controls for individuals’ time-invariant traits, any statistically and quantitatively significant effect of a major in Business/Economics on the Political Ideology of these individuals disappears. We posit that, at least in our sample, there is no evidence for a causal effect of a major in Business/Economics on individuals’ Political Ideology.
  • Xue, Jianpo; Yip, Chong K. (2017)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 22/2017
    This paper examines the effects of China's One Child Policy (OCP) in a stylized unified growth model where demographic change plays a central role. Introducing a population constraint into Galor and Weil (2000) model, our theoretical analysis shows that parents are willing to invest in the education of their children immediately after the OCP intervention. Raising the education level, in turn, boosts rates of technological progress and economic growth over the short run, but the low population mass resulting from the OCP hampers the natural economic evolution. This eventually reduces the education gain and technology growth, retarding economic growth in the steady state. We next calibrate our model to match the key data moments in China. A permanent OCP is found to accelerate economic growth by up to 60% over the short run (40 years, or two generations under our assumed generation length), but depress long-run growth to 6:95% (8:94% under natural evolution). For a temporary OCP lifted after two generations, the economic growth shows an immediate decline of about 27%, followed by a gradual recovery to the steady state under natural evolution. While the OCP reduces welfare, the welfare loss from a temporary OCP is less than that from a permanent OCP. This suggests that the recent decision of the Chinese government to abandon the OCP and move to a two-child policy is likely to improve economic growth and welfare over the long run.
  • Aaltonen, Markus (2017)
    Euro & talous. Blogi
    Opintolainojen kokonaismäärä kasvaa parhaillaan ennätysvauhtia. Suurimpana syynä tähän ovat opintolainan valtiontakauksen korotukset, mutta myös opintolainan ottajien määrä on kasvanut.
  • Lyubimov, Ivan; Lysyuk, Maria (2018)
    BOFIT Policy Brief 1/2018
    This paper discusses the weakness of average years of schooling as a measure of human capital stock. We consider the example of Russia with its large-scale tertiary education and extensive student employment. Building on Lant Pritchett’s observation (Pritchett, L., 2013), we consider insufficient quality of education and relatively low demand for human capital as potential causes of the “earning while learning” expansion. While the latter is likely to reduce the pace of human capital accumulation, it nevertheless may leave average years of schooling untouched.
  • Modeen, G. (1933)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 13 ; 3 ; March
  • Popova, Tatiana (1997)
    IDÄNTALOUKSIEN KATSAUKSIA. REVIEW OF ECONOMIES IN TRANSITION 4/1997
    Numerous economic and social problems emerging from transition in Russia highlight the nearsightedness of current economic reform policies.Moves such as liberation of culture from direct state control are clearly for the better, but overall, the reforms have had a negative impact on Russian cultural life. The study is organized as follows: section one describes the actuality of analysis of the impact economic reform in Russia has had on culture and the fine arts.Section two looks at the denationalization effects on culture and patronage issues.Section three describes a vicious circle that has led to "cultural goods" of poor quality.Problems of education in transitional period are analyzed in section four.The conclusion is devoted to analysis of official views of cultural consequences of economic reforms in Russia.
  • Lahti, Timo (1973)
    Bank of Finland. Monthly Bulletin 47 ; 6 ; June
  • Kinnunen, Helvi; Mäki-Fränti, Petri (2017)
    Bank of Finland. Bulletin 5/2017
    Bolstering the supply of labour has long been one of the most important objectives of economic policy in Finland. The impact of policy measures is typically greatest in those population groups who have available alternatives to paid work. Incentives and labour market structures are significant, particularly in influencing the decisions of the young in general, women of childbearing age and older workers and for furthering their chances of joining the labour market. When planning policy measures, we must be able to discern the extent to which observed employment developments are due to structural factors or to cyclical factors. Although the improved economic situation at present is attracting young people back to the labour market, improvements to the employment situation will require economic policy measures. In such measures, education is particularly important.