Browsing by Subject "markkinatalous"

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  • Du, Julan; Lu, Yi; Tao, Zhigang (2009)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 17/2009
    Market economy models differ in the degree of the power of the government vis-à-vis the market in the economy. Under the classications set forth by Glaeser and Shleifer (2002, 2003), and Djankov et al. (2003), these market models range from those emphasizing low government intervention in the market (private orderings and private litigation through courts) to those where the state is an active participant (regulatory state). This paper, using data from a survey of 3,073 private enterprises in China, constructs an index to quantify the power of the government vis-à-vis the market. Regional government power is found to vary considerably across China's regions. Notably, enterprises located in regions where government exerts more power in the market perform better, suggesting that the regulatory state model of the market economy is appropriate for China.
  • Sutela, Pekka (2005)
    BOFIT Online 6/2005
    Establishing connections between economic performance and policies, institutions and exogenous change is difficult under any circumstances.In the case of Russia, where relevant time series are short and structural and institutional change has occurred in the absence of a well-defined model of the economy, it becomes largely - if not entirely - a matter of art and taste.This paper considers the possible impacts of structural reform under President Putin on Russian economic performance.Judging the impact of Putin's reforms on recent Russian economic performance is confounded by the problem of overdetermination.That is, we can identify a number of contributing factors, but cannot say for sure if their absence would have a crucial effect on outcomes.On the other hand, there seem to be no grounds for denying the importance of reforms, even if their short-term impact might primarily be through expectations, a factor notoriously difficult to pinpoint. Further, it is a matter of some delight that, contrary to what is currently all too easily and often argued, Russia's structural reforms continue.Key words: Russia, economic policy, reforms, growth
  • Itkonen, Juha V.A. (2015)
    Scientific monographs. E 49
    Climate change is one of the greatest market failures of our time. This thesis consists of three essays in which we study the economics of climate change using networks as a theoretical framework. In the first essay, we discover flaws in the foundations of a recent strand of literature estimating the carbon Kuznets curve (CKC). The CKC hypothesizes that carbon dioxide emissions initially increase with economic growth but that the relationship is eventually reversed. The recent literature attempts to estimate the CKC by adding energy consumption as a control variable. Due to model misspecifications related to the econometric methodology and database definitions, the results are biased to support the existence of a CKC. Consequently, the literature underestimates the need for climate policies. In the second essay, we study how social networks might help to explain why differences of opinion about climate change persist across segments of the lay public despite the scientific consensus. To do this, we programmed a Facebook application that collected survey data on concerns about climate change and network data on friendships. We found that respondents tend to have friends with similar concerns as their own, the unconcerned respondents have fewer friends, and any two respondents who disagreed about the seriousness of global warming were less than half as likely to be friends. The results indicate that the structure of the social network may hinder changes in opinions, explaining why opinions persist despite the scientific consensus. The results suggest that the communication of climate science could be improved by strategies that aim to overcome these network effects. In the third essay, we study permit markets which are connected by a network of links. A link allows participants of one emissions trading system to use permits of other systems. In a linked network of markets, foreign regulators can influence domestic policy outcomes even without a direct link. We apply graph theory to study these dependencies between markets to determine who exactly can affect domestic emissions and prices. We characterize the equilibrium’s dependency structure assuming perfect competition and an exogenous trading network. The results help to avoid unexpected foreign interference with domestic policy outcomes and to secure the effectiveness of climate change policies.
  • Ivanenko, Vlad (2005)
    BOFIT Discussion Papers 16/2005
    The paper looks into convergence of Russian institutions with those of other democratic, free-market-oriented states, and considers definitions of "normalcy" that incorporate the concepts of free market, democracy, and government efficiency.The author provides an estimate of Russia s institutional convergence to the standards of the G7 and the Big Five group of large, middle-income countries that includes Brazil, China, and India.In some areas Russia outperforms "Big Five" countries, in others it trails behind.Finally, public mistrust, corruption, and inefficient governance in Russia are discussed in light of the Putin administration s current reform policies. JEL: O57, P30, P52 Keywords: Free market, democracy, institutions, Russia
  • Ericson, Richard E. (2000)
    BOFIT Online 2000/8
    In fifteen years, Russia has changed thoroughly.But what actually is the outcome so far of Russia s change?In this paper the leading US expert on the Russian economy argues that far from being a well-defined market economy, Russia is best characterised as an industrial feudalism with many peculiarities absent from the rest of the (non-post-Soviet) modern world.The author further argues that it can take a very long time before the proper institutions are place so that a modern market economy could develop.